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An example of a metropolitan delta is situated in The Netherlands: the city of Rotterdam and its surrounding area….. Click to start this lecture in pictures on hydrological problems and solutions Note: the scale of the pictures is indicative of the problems, and is not necessarily accurate

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slide1

An example of a metropolitan delta is situated in The Netherlands: the city of Rotterdam and its surrounding area…..

Click to start this lecture in pictures on hydrological problems and solutions

Note: the scale of the pictures is indicative of the problems, and is not necessarily accurate

Ondergrond Nederland uit de Vijfde Nota Ruimtelijke Ordening, 2001, Min VROM, Bronnen: MUST – Geosys (Frankrijk) – Bosatlas – Nationaal Geografisch Instituut (België), Institut für Angewandte Geodäsie (Duitsland) - ministerie V&W, directie Noordzee en Meetkundige Dienst – NEO

slide3

drinking water to the city

drinking water to the city

Problem:

Extraction of drinking water from the dunes is hamperedbecause of more salt intrusiondue to the rise in sea level

Impacts:Salinisation of drinking water

and decline of the ecology

of the inner dune belt

Solution:

Stop water extraction: use rain and/or river water reservoirs for drinking water

This will restore the high water table in the dunes,

and will enlarge the fresh water lens, thus

recovering the upward seepage in the inner dunes which restores the dune ecology

pumping station

1

fresh water

salt water

slide4

drinking water reservoir

drinking water

drinking water

Solution:

a: pump air through a perforated pipe on the river bed,

generating an upward water flow and/or:b: allocate inlet points for drinking water further upstream

c: and/or create a drinking water reservoir

Problem:rise in sea level causing further intrusion of salt water into the river

Impact: increasing salt content of drinking water from river

drinking water reservoir

2

slide5

Problems:

Pesticidepollution of surface water andlowering of groundwater table in inner dunes due to bulb cultivation

Impacts: Deterioration of aquatic ecosystems and decline in

quality of terrestrial ecosystems in the inner dunes

Solution:

Re-allocate bulb cultivation to less vulnerable sites and construct a fresh water basin.

Then upward seepage of fresh water and the water table in the dunes will restore.

3

fresh water

salt water

slide6

Problems:

a: rise in sea level causing salt in groundwater

b: water pollution from glass house horticulture

Impacts:

Water for irrigation needs desalinization and purification

Solution:

use closed water chain within

sealed unit horticulture

4

fresh water

salt and polluted ground- water

salt water

slide7

Problem:rise in sea level causing coastal zone erosion

Impact: risk of flooding of western part of The Netherlands

Solution:

construct a dam along the coast

5

slide8

Plan Lievense:wind turbines also provide energy for filling the reservoir

6

high tide

low tide

Problem: oil pollution and sea rising

Impacts: death of sea birds and marine organisms

Solution: implement “green” sources of energy, e.g. wind and tidal, using the coast as an energy zone in combination with protection against flooding by the sea

slide9

Plan Lievense:wind turbines also provide energy for filling the reservoir

Problem: oil pollution and sea rising

Impacts: death of sea birds and marine organisms

6

high tide

low tide

Solution: implement “green” sources of energy, e.g. wind and tidal, using the coast as an energy zone in combination with protection against flooding by the sea

slide10

Problems:drainage in agricultural land causes seepagefrom wetland to agricultural area combined with

lower river level causes water loss in summer

Impacts:lowering of groundwater table, causing decline in quality of wetlands

7

Seepage to river

seepage

Seapage

Seapage

Solutions: a: cease agriculture, increase wetland area and/or create housing on water

b: increase river level in summer by reservoir management upstream and construction of locks

slide11

seepage

seepage

seepage from the river

seepage from sea

Problems: a: rise in sea levelb: higher peak levels of rivers

c: lowering of groundwater table due to drainage of pastures

Impacts: a: land decline through mineralization of peat soils

b: more seepage from rivers, requiring more pumping (drainage)

c: more seepage of salt into groundwater, requiring more pumping

d: damage to building foundation due to land level decline

8

Solutions: a: cease agriculture and choose other forms of land use which allow seasonal variation in water level and salt content of water (e.g. wetlands)

b: combine this with the creation of wider flood plains, thus lowering the peak river levelsc: modify building techniques: e.g. place buildings on pillars or on floating islands

slide12

Problem:Higher peak water levels of the river due to embankmentof flood plains upstream and increased precipitation

Impacts:risk of overflow of river banks causing flooding of the enclosed areas

9

Solution:

a: hold water upstream, through modified land use and reservoir construction

b: create wider flood plains (with flooding housing)

c: construct roads along the rivers on pillars

slide13

Solution:

increase discharge in summer by: reservoir management upstream

and/or construction of locks

Problems:a: lower water discharge in summer

b: increased salt concentration in summer

c: worse water qualityImpacts:a: problems with shipping channels

b: insufficient water supply for agriculturec: decline in quality of aquatic ecosystems

10

slide14

Problems:bad water quality causedby sewage overflow from

the city during more

extreme rainfall eventsImpacts:water less suitable forrecreation and more

health risks

Solution:

prevent overflow of sewage by: separating rain water and sewage systems and construction of underground reservoirs for retention of sewage

recreational area

11

slide15

Zoom out

12

Problem:climate change causes sea level rise and increased precipitation. The latter in conjunction with other factors, e.g. the reduction in the extent of flood plains through embankment leads to higher peak water levels in rivers;Impacts:higher risk of flooding (by sea and rivers), salinization of drinking water and potential water pollution, e.g. by flooding of off shore oil platforms and by oil transport.

slide16

tidal lake

flood plain

12

drinking water reservoir

storm surge barrier

Problems:sea level rise and higher peak river levelsImpacts:higher risk of flooding and potential pollution

Solutions: a: create wider flood plains b: construct a retaining dam and a storm surge barrier

c: reduce risk of pollution by implementing wind- & tidal energy and construct a reservoir for drinking water