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Humboldt Regional Organic Waste Digester. California Integrated Waste Management Board July 14, 2009. Purpose:. Divert food waste from landfills. Why Divert Food Waste?. ~20% of waste stream Develop diversion infrastructure: AB 939 compliance Population growth

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humboldt regional organic waste digester

Humboldt Regional Organic Waste Digester

California Integrated

Waste Management Board

July 14, 2009

purpose
Purpose:

Divert food waste from landfills

why divert food waste
Why Divert Food Waste?
  • ~20% of waste stream
  • Develop diversion infrastructure:
    • AB 939 compliance
    • Population growth
    • Future legislation (AB 479)
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions
    • Landfills emit methane
    • Waste trucked 190 miles one-way
diversion potential
Diversion Potential

Source: HWMA quarterly reports, waste audits

Assumes 100% capture

food waste characteristics
Food Waste Characteristics

Wet

Heavy

Putrefies quickly

Contains energy

food waste energy
Food Waste = Energy

VS + A.D. = CH4 + CO2

75% H2O

RENEWABLE ENERGY!!!

85% volatile solids (VS)

25% Total Solids

15% fixed solids (FS)

food waste in landfills
Food Waste in Landfills
  • Methane (CH4)
    • ~23 x more powerful than CO2
  • Uncontrolled CH4 emissions
    • Food waste decomposes: 4 months
    • Collection systems installed: 2-5 years
    • Variable LFG capture efficiency
diversion options
Diversion Options:

Food Banks

Pig Farms

Composting

Anaerobic Digestion

existing diversion
Existing Diversion
  • Food banks
      • Pre-consumer waste only
  • Pig farms
      • Pre-consumer or post-consumer + treatment
      • Limited in local capacity
      • Produce high-strength waste
food waste composting
Food Waste Composting

Aerobic decomposition

Produces soil amendment

Green waste used as bulking agent

Process time 90 – 180 days

Emits some CH4, N2O, VOC

Kills pathogens

local compost challenges
Local Compost Challenges
  • Competition for green waste
  • Food waste prohibited
  • Odors
  • VOC emissions
  • Large footprint
  • High rainfall levels
  • Aerobic conditions = high energy inputs
anaerobic digestion
Anaerobic Digestion

Oxygen-free environment

Mature technology

Wastewater treatment plants

Dairies & pig farms

Produces biogas (CH4 +CO2)

Reduces VOCs

Positive net energy balance

benefits
Benefits:
  • Renewable energy
    • Captures CH4
  • Shorter process time
      • 25 vs. 120 days
  • Smaller footprint
      • 3 vs. 20 acres
  • Reduces waste
  • Soil amendment
challenges
Challenges:

Permitting

Collection

Contamination

Residuals

Cost efficiency

Bottle Cap

food waste digestion
Food Waste Digestion

70 in Europe

East Bay Municipal Utility District

Toronto

UC Davis*

Inland Empire*

options
Options:
  • Dedicated food waste digester + compost
  • Co-digest with municipal sludge at WWTP
renewable energy
Renewable Energy
  • Assumes 35% generator efficiency
  • Assumes 25% parasitic load
slide27
$$$

*Assumes $0.10/ kWh

ghg reductions
GHG Reductions
  • Assumes 0.7 MT CO2e / MT food waste (CCX)
  • Assumes 0.524 lbs CO2 / kWh (PG&E)
project development plan
Project Development Plan

Organic Waste Resource Analysis

Permitting – EPA Region 9

Pilot collection

Phase 1: Demonstration and testing

Efficient pre-processing

Appropriate technology

Residuals management alternatives

Phase 2: Expand to regional scale

to conclude
To conclude…
  • Project Benefits include:
    • Divert waste from landfills
    • Generate renewable energy
    • Reduce GHG emissions
    • Retain $$$ in County
    • Create jobs
    • Increase regional sustainability
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Gary Bird - City of Eureka
  • Clay Yerby, Gerry Snead - Elk River WWTP
  • Kurt Gierlich - City of Eureka
  • Paul Suto, Sophia Scota – East Bay MUD
  • Charles Chamberlin, Arne Jacobson – HSU
  • Cara Peck – US EPA Region 9
  • Josh Rapport - UC Davis
  • Mike Leggins, Chris Choate - Recology
  • Brown and Cauldwell – Eureka WWTP Engineers
  • Dufferin Organics Processing Facility
  • BTA Processing – Canada Composting
  • Cedar Grove & Jepson Prairie composting facilities
  • Andrew Jolin – HWMA Mad River Composting Facility
  • Hambro Forest Products
  • Del Norte Solid Waste Management Authority
ab 32 emissions reductions goals
AB 32: Emissions Reductions Goals
  • State-wide: 146.7 MMTCO2e
  • Local government: 15% by 2020
  • Waste sector goal: 10 MMTCO2e
funding options
Funding Options
  • Regional partners share funding
    • Bonds or low-interest loans
    • Complete ownership
    • Revenues and “green attributes” allocated to facility owners
  • Public/Private partnership
    • Shared ownership and operation
    • Shared benefits from “green attributes”
    • Shared revenues
  • Performance contractors
    • Delayed ownership – option to buy after 6 years
    • “Green attributes” and revenues allocated to owner
    • Flat rate electricity at just below utility rate
feed in tariff
Feed-in Tariff
  • AB 1969 – “requires all electrical corporations to file with the CPUC a standard tariff to provide for payment for every kilowatt hour (kWh) of renewable energy output produced at an eligible electric generation facility”
  • CPUC Decision 07-07-027
    • Tariffs and standard contracts for the purchase of renewable energy from WWTPs
feed in tariff40
Feed-in Tariff
  • PG&E: 104 MW capacity allocation to WWTPs
  • PG&E: 104 MW allocation to non-WWTPs
  • Rates based on:
    • # kWh sold
    • Time of delivery
    • MPR set by CPUC
    • 10, 15, 20 year contracts
  • Interconnection through FERC SGIP
  • “Green Attributes”
    • To facility for generated RE they use on site
    • To IOU for RE sold to grid
analysis data inputs
Analysis Data & Inputs
  • HWMA records
  • CIWMB
  • EPA region 9
  • Food waste digestion projects & case studies
    • EBMUD
    • Dufferin Organics
    • NewMarket
    • UC Davis
  • Eureka WWTP
  • Brown & Caldwell
  • Equipment manufacturers
  • Eureka City Garbage, Nor Cal