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Generator Management Relay. Protection, metering, and monitoring functions for generators . Presented by: John Levine, P.E. Levine Lectronics and Lectric, Inc. John@L-3.com 770 565-1556. Overview Theory Wiring Security. Outline. What a Generator looks like. Generator Protection.

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generator management relay

Generator Management Relay

Protection, metering, and monitoring functions for generators.

Presented by:

John Levine, P.E.

Levine Lectronics and Lectric, Inc.

John@L-3.com

770 565-1556

outline
Overview

Theory

Wiring

Security

Outline
why upgrade generator and transformer
Existing generator and transformer protection (more than 5 years or non-digital) may:

Cause protection security issues

Tripping on through-faults, external faults, swings, load encroachment and energizing

May lack comprehensive monitoring and communications capabilities

Not provide valuable forensic info that can lead to rapid restoration

Not be up to ANSI/IEEE Standards!

Insurance, Asset Reliability and Personal Liability Issues

C37-102: Guide for the Protection of Synchronous Generators

C37.91: Guide for Transformer Protection

Why Upgrade? Generator and Transformer
slide7

Generator Management Relay

Product Overview

  • Ideal Protection for Induction and Synchronous Generators at 25, 50 and 60Hz
  • Complete Generator Protection including:
    • Generator Stator Differential
    • 2 or 3 Zone Distance Backup
    • 100% Stator Ground
  • High speed sampling, 12 samples per cycle
  • Drawout Case Installation
  • Powerful Fault Recording: Waveform, Sequence of Events
  • Ethernet and Serial Communications
  • Metering of all important parameters
generator protection review
Abnormal Operating Conditions

Loss of Synchronism

Abnormal Frequency

Overexcitation

Field Loss

Inadvertent Energizing

Breaker Failure

Loss of Prime Mover Power

Blown VT Fuses

Open Circuits

Generator Protection Review
ieee psrc survey
Conducted in early ’90s, showed many areas of protection lacking

Unwillingness to upgrade:

Lack of expertise

To recognize deficiency

To perform the work

“Generators don’t trip” (wrong)

Operating procedures will save the day

IEEE PSRC Survey

PSRC = Power System Relay Committee

ansi ieee standards
Latest developments reflected in:

Std. 242: Buff Book

C37.102: IEEE Guide for Generator Protection

C37.101: IEEE Guide for AC Generator Ground Protection

C37.106: IEEE Guide for Abnormal Frequency Protection for Power Generating Plants

ANSI/IEEE Standards

These are created/maintained by the IEEE PSRC & IAS

They are updated every 5 years

small machine protection ieee buff book
Small – up to 1 MW to 600V, 500 kVA if >600VSmall Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book

32 Reverse Power

40 Loss of Excitation

51V voltage restraint

51G Ground overcurrent

87 Differential

small machine protection ieee buff book16
Medium – up to 12.5 MWSmall Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book

32 Reverse Power

40 Loss of Excitation

46 Negative Sequence

51V voltage restraint

51G Ground overcurrent

87 Differential

small machine protection ieee buff book17
Large – up to 50 MWSmall Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book

32 Reverse Power

40 Loss of Excitation

46 Negative Sequence

49 Thermal Overload

51V voltage restraint

51G Ground overcurrent

64 Ground Relay

87 Differential

large machine protection ieee c37 102
Unit Connected,

High Z Grounded

Large Machine ProtectionIEEE C37.102

32 Reverse Power

40 Loss of Excitation

46 Negative Sequence

49 Thermal Overload

51V voltage restraint

51G Ground overcurrent

64 Ground Relay

87 Differential

slide20

Protection Functions

  • Protection Functions Include:
  • Generator Stator Differential
  • Backup Distance Protection
  • 100% Stator Ground
  • Generator Unbalance
  • Loss of Excitation
  • Accidental Energization
  • Breaker Fail
  • Phase Overcurrent – Voltage Restraint
  • Neutral Inst. / Timed Overcurrent
  • Neg. Sequence Overcurrent
  • Under / Over Voltage
  • Under / Over Frequency
  • Generator Thermal Model
  • RTD Temperature
  • Overexcitation – Volts/Hertz
desirable attributes generator
Reverse Power (32)

Should be sensitive to 0.05 pu to properly detect motoring in large steam turbines

Existing E/M and Static relays not sensitive enough

May cause shutdown difficulties

Negative Sequence (46)

Should be sensitive to low values to detect open poles/conductors on system after GSU

Existing E/M and Static relays not sensitive enough

Long time low level events may cause excessive rotor heating, thermal tripping and damage rotor

100% Stator Ground (59N / 59D)

Protects all of the stator winding

Existing schemes typically only see 90%

Stop low level fault near neutral from degrading into a high level fault and causing large amounts of damage

Very secure

Desirable Attributes - Generator
desirable attributes generator26
Inadvertent Energizing (50/27)

High speed tripping of unit after breaker accidentally closed on dead machine, also pole flashover prior to syncing

Most existing schemes do not incorporate

Many schemes fail due to complexity (reliance on breaker auxiliary switches, yard distance relays, etc.

If breaker is not tripped rapidly, mechanical and electric damage can occur to machine in fractions of a second!

Pole flashovers must be cleared by high speed breaker failure, as the breaker is open!

Desirable Attributes - Generator
slide29

Protection Functions

Generator Stator Differential

  • Stator Phase Differential
  • Dual Slope Percent Restraint Operating Characteristic
  • Directional Supervision under saturation conditions

Distance Backup Protection

  • 2 or 3 Zone Mho Distance Protection
  • Backup for primary line protection
  • Configurable Reach and Angle Distance Characteristic

Dual Slope Phase Differential

100% Stator Ground Protection

  • 95% Fundamental OverVoltage
  • 15% Third Harmonic UnderVoltage

Two Zone Distance Backup

slide30

Protection Functions

Voltage Protection

  • Phase Overvoltage
  • Phase Undervoltage
  • Neutral Overvoltage (fundamental)
  • Neutral Undervoltage (3rd Harmonic)
  • Voltage Phase Reversal

Current Protection

  • Phase, Ground and Negative Sequence Overcurrent Tripping
  • IEC, ANSI , IAC and Customizable Overcurrent Curves
  • Voltage Restraint increasing sensitivity under low voltage conditions

Voltage Restraint Overcurrent

Frequency Protection

  • Overfrequency
  • Underfrequency

Undervoltage Trip Curves

slide31

Protection Functions

Thermal Protection

  • Generator Thermal Model
  • RTD Alarming and Tripping
  • RTD Biased Thermal Model

Inadvertent Energization

  • Prevents Accidentally Closing a Stopped Generator onto a Live Line
  • Armed when Generator is Offline and Voltage is below a pre-set level

Thermal Model – Voltage Dependant Overload Curves

Loss of Excitation (show Training CD)

  • Uses Impedance Circle for loss of excitation detection
  • 2 Zones for fault detection and control

Volt/Hertz (Overexcitation)

  • Detects changes in the Volts/Hertz ratio of the generator or associated transformer

Loss of Excitation

slide38

Enhanced Security

Prevents Unauthorized Access and Provide Traceability

  • Security Audit Trail
  • Date and time of hardware, firmware or setting changes to your relays
  • Logging of the MAC address of computers and users making settings changes
  • Track method of how settings changes were made (i.e. keypad, serial port, ethernet)
  • Date/time security report was generated
  • Description of the GE Multilin Relay
  • Summary of the last time the configuration was changed
  • History of last 10 occurrences the configuration was changed

Security strategy – conforms to industry and regulated guidelines