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Further Development and Application of the CMAQ Ozone and Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

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Further Development and Application of the CMAQ Ozone and Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM). 7 th Annual CMAS Conference Chapel Hill, NC 6-8 October 2008 Presented by Sharon Douglas ICF International, San Rafael, CA. Co-Authors:. Tom Myers Yihua Wei Jay Haney

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Further Development and Application of the CMAQ Ozone and Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

7th Annual CMAS Conference

Chapel Hill, NC

6-8 October 2008

Presented by Sharon Douglas

ICF International, San Rafael, CA

co authors
Co-Authors:
  • Tom Myers
  • Yihua Wei
  • Jay Haney
  • Tom Braverman,

ICF

EPA OAQPS

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Overview of CMAQ/OPTM & PPTM source attribution methods
  • Application of CMAQ/OPTM & CMAQ/PPTM to support ozone & PM2.5 designations (example for Milwaukee)
  • Application of CMAQ/PPTM to characterize CAAA-related reductions in PM2.5 for cost/benefit analysis
  • Next steps
optm pptm general concepts
OPTM & PPTM: General Concepts
  • Emissions (or IC/BC) species are tagged in the input files and continuously tracked throughout the simulation
  • Tags can be applied to source regions, source categories, individual sources, and/or IC/BCs
  • Tagged species have the same properties and are subjected to the same processes (e.g., advection, chemical transformation, deposition) as the actual species
optm pptm general concepts5
OPTM & PPTM: General Concepts
  • OPTM species include ozone, NOx & VOC
  • PPTM species include PM-related S, N, SOA, POC, EC & other inorganic particulates*
  • Base simulation results not affected by tagging
  • OPTM & PPTM quantify the contribution of tagged sources to simulated species concentrations & deposition

*PPTM has also been implemented for mercury

implementation of optm for cmaq overview 1
Implementation of OPTM for CMAQ (Overview(1))
  • Total emissions of both NOx and VOC from the desired sources or source categories are tagged (e.g., NOx_t1, NOx_t2, VOC_t1, VOC_t2)
  • Oxidant tracers (OXN_t1, OXV_t1, OXN_t2, OXV_t2) correspond to the oxidant produced from NOx & VOC for each tagged category
implementation of optm for cmaq overview 2
Implementation of OPTM for CMAQ (Overview(2))
  • Advection/Diffusion:
    • Use standard CMAQ algorithms
  • Gas Phase Chemistry:
    • Chemistry step called as usual
    • Changes in NOx, VOC & oxidant (ΔVOC, ΔNOX & ΔOX) are calculated and apportioned to tags
  • Deposition:
    • Calculated for the tags based on fractional change in total NOx, VOC & oxidant due to deposition
implementation of pptm for cmaq overview
Implementation of PPTM for CMAQ (Overview)
  • Within CMAQ, tagging is accomplished by adding duplicate species (e.g., ANO3_t1, ANO3_t2)
  • More than 50 (gas & aerosol phase) species per tag required to track total PM2.5 (e.g., for nitrogen: ANH4I, ANH4J, ANO3I, ANO3J, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5 …)
  • Key considerations/assumptions:
    • Linear processes simulated directly
    • Potentially non-linear processes calculated for total species and apportioned to tags
  • PPTM can also be used to estimate contributions to N and other forms of deposition
application of cmaq optm pptm for the milwaukee area
Application of CMAQ/OPTM & PPTM for the Milwaukee Area
  • Objective: To identify the source regions that potentially contribute to high ozone and high PM2.5 concentrations in the Milwaukee, WI area
  • Specs:
    • Regional-scale modeling domain
    • 2002 base year; limited simulation periods (1 month for ozone; 4 months for PM2.5)
    • 13 tagged source regions (county level)
application of cmaq optm pptm for the milwaukee area tags
Application of CMAQ/OPTM & PPTM for the Milwaukee Area: Tags

T1: Milwaukee Co., WI

T2: Washington Co., WI

T3: Ozaukee Co., WI

T4: Waukesha Co., WI

T5: Racine Co., WI

T6: Sheboygan & Fond du Lac Co., WI

T7: Dodge, Jefferson & Walworth Co., WI

T8: Kenosha Co., WI

T9: Cook Co., IL

T10: Lake, McHenry, Kane, Dupage Co.,IL

T11: Will Co., IL & Lake & Porter Co., IN

T12: Remainder of 12-km grid

T13: IC/BCs

cmaq optm results for the milwaukee area nox
CMAQ/OPTM Results for the Milwaukee Area: NOx

Average Contribution to Maximum 8-Hour Ozone

Tag 1: Milwaukee Co.

Tag 9: Cook Co.

Tag 10: 4 Other IL Co.

cmaq optm results for the milwaukee area voc
CMAQ/OPTM Results for the Milwaukee Area: VOC

Average Contribution to Maximum 8-Hour Ozone

Tag 1: Milwaukee Co.

Tag 9: Cook Co.

Tag 10: 4 Other IL Co.

cmaq optm results for a monitoring site nox voc
CMAQ/OPTM Results for a Monitoring Site: NOx & VOC

Average Contribution to Maximum 8-Hour Ozone

IC/BCs

Milwaukee Co.

12-km grid

Milwaukee Bayside

cmaq pptm results for a monitoring site
CMAQ/PPTM Results for a Monitoring Site

12-km grid

IC/BCs

Milwaukee Co.

Milwaukee Virginia Fire Station

cmaq pptm results for a monitoring site17
CMAQ/PPTM Results for a Monitoring Site

12-km grid

IC/BCs

Waukesha Co.

Milwaukee Co.

Waukesha

summary for milwaukee
Summary for Milwaukee
  • OPTM & PPTM can be used to quantify
    • the contribution of emissions (by species) from specified source regions to CMAQ-derived concentrations
    • the potential for sources/source regions to contribute to nonattainment in a given area
  • Contributions vary by location and are different for the different species (NOx, VOC and PM species)
  • Ozone & PM2.5 nonattainment issues in the Milwaukee area are the combined result of local emissions as well as intra- & inter-state transport
application of cmaq pptm to support the 812 cost benefit analysis
Application of CMAQ/PPTM to Support the §812 Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • Objectives:
    • Quality assurance
    • To quantify and compare the source category contributions to PM2.5 both with and without the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA)
  • Specs:
    • National-scale modeling domain
    • Annual simulation period; two scenarios (2010 without CAAA and 2010 with CAAA)
    • 7 tagged source categories
application of cmaq pptm for the 812 modeling analysis tags
Application of CMAQ/PPTM for the §812 Modeling Analysis: Tags
  • T1: EGU sources (U.S.)
  • T2: Non-EGU point sources (U.S.)
  • T3: On-road mobile sources (U.S.)
  • T4: Non-road mobile sources (U.S.)
  • T5: Area (non-point, non-mobile) sources (U.S.)
  • T6: Initial and boundary conditions (IC/BCs)
  • T7: All other sources (natural emissions, offshore sources, and non-U.S. sources)
cmaq pptm results contribution from egu sources tag 1
CMAQ/PPTM Results: Contribution from EGU Sources (Tag 1)

Annual Average PM2.5

2010 without CAAA

2010 with CAAA

cmaq pptm results contribution from non egu point sources tag 2
CMAQ/PPTM Results: Contribution from Non-EGU Point Sources (Tag 2)

Annual Average PM2.5

2010 without CAAA

2010 with CAAA

cmaq pptm results contribution from on road sources tag 3
CMAQ/PPTM Results: Contribution from On-Road Sources (Tag 3)

Annual Average PM2.5

2010 without CAAA

2010 with CAAA

summary of pptm results for the 812 modeling analysis
Summary of PPTM Results for the §812 Modeling Analysis
  • PPTM used as a probing tool to attribute the overall reductions in PM2.5 (due to the CAAA measures) to specific source categories
  • Total simulated PM2.5 concentration is lower under the CAAA scenario, primarily due to reductions in area- & point-source (EGU & non-EGU) emissions (relative importance varies by region and by location)
  • Health benefits can be similarly attributed to source categories, sources, or specific measures
next steps
Next Steps
  • Incorporate OPTM & PPTM (for ozone and PM2.5) into CMAQv4.7
  • Incorporate PPTM (for mercury and 10 additional toxic pollutants) into CMAQv4.7
  • Distribute OPTM & PPTM codes through CMAS
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