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Family Collaboration & Home Programming. Alyssa Blum Elena Garcia-Albea Hannah Kaplan Catherine Taylor. Why Parent Collaboration? Research Findings Program Models & Approaches What’s Missing? Home Programming Tips for Teachers & Parents Working with Parents

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family collaboration home programming

Family Collaboration & Home Programming

Alyssa Blum

Elena Garcia-Albea

Hannah Kaplan

Catherine Taylor

slide2
Why Parent Collaboration?
  • Research Findings
  • Program Models & Approaches
  • What’s Missing?
  • Home Programming
  • Tips for Teachers & Parents
  • Working with Parents
  • Providing Positive & Corrective Feedback
  • How To Handle Potentially Difficult Situations
  • More Research
  • Parent / Consumer Feedback & Surveys
  • Parent Interviews

Topics

research findings
Research Findings
      • Why?
      • What?
      • How?
  • Considerations
why parent collaboration
WhyParent Collaboration?
  • Generalization
  • Home Sweet Home
  • Stressors
  • Component of comprehensive programs
  • Social Validity
why generalization
Why?Generalization
  • Generalization across settings for children with autism does not typically occur unless programmed for (Handleman and Harris, 1979; Handleman and Harris 1980; Koegel, Egel, Williams, 1980)
  • Generalization between home and school for children with autism typically requires programming (Harris and Handleman, 1983)
  • Parents less likely to continue parent training with no generalization (vicious cycle) (McClannahan and Krantz, 1982)
why home sweet home
Why?Home Sweet Home
  • Increase on-task time-40 hours (Lovaas, 1987)
  • Consistency (Iovannone,Dunlap, Huber, Kincaid,2003)
  • Need “better than average” contingency management skills” (McClannahan and Krantz, 1982)
why stressors
Why?Stressors
  • Hastings and Johnson, 2001
  • Studied predictors of stress levels for parents
  • of children with autism
  • Parents of children with autism scored higher on Parent and Family Problems, Depression, and Pessimism than other parents of typically developing or mild to moderate cognitive impairment.
  • More symptomology, less social support, fewer adaptive coping mechanisms , and less belief in teaching methods correlate with higher scores in Parent and Family Problems, Depression, and Pessimism
  • We can help provide support groups, suggest importance of existing resources, help them accept that “negative events occur and that they need to be dealt with”, “putting a more positive spin on problems so as not to unnecessarily discourage family members”
why stressors8
Why?Stressors
  • Koegel, Bimbela, Schreibman, 2007
  • Parent training in 2 conditions: Which one delivers better family interaction outcomes (lower stress)
  • Individual Target Behavior: discrete trials, clear tasks and instruction, functional reinforcers for response, shaping and prompting
  • Pivotal Response Training: child chooses materials, intersperse maintenance, attempts to respond correctly
  • were also reinforced, use only naturally occurring reinoforcers intrinsic in part of task being taught.
  • Video of dinnertime was scored through Positive Interaction Rating Scale
  • PRT condition showed increases in happiness and interest, lower stress during interactions, more positive style of parent-child communication
why comprehensive programs
Why?Comprehensive Programs
  • PCDI, LOVAAS, Alpine Learning Group, Douglas Developmental all have parent collaboration as a major component of their program
why social validity wolf 1978
Why?Social ValidityWolf, 1978
  • 1. The social significance of the goals. Are the specific behavioral goals really what society wants?
  • 2. The social appropriateness of the procedures. Do the ends justify the means? That is, do the participants, caregivers and other consumers consider the treatment procedures acceptable?
  • 3. The social importance of the effects. Are consumers satisfied with the results? All the results, including any unpredicted ones?
why social validity wolf 197811
Why?Social ValidityWolf, 1978
  • “If the participants don't like the treatment then they may avoid it, or run away, or complain loudly. And thus, society will be less likely to use our technology, no matter how potentially effective and efficient it might be.”
what types of skills can parent s benefit from training
What types of skills can parent’s benefit from training?
  • (should be skills that parents want)
  • DTT
  • Incidental Teaching (NLP, Time Delay)
  • Sibling Interaction
  • Photographic Activity Schedules/ Leisure/Play
  • Nonfunctional behaviors-aggressive, self-injurious, stereotypy, noncompliance, “voluntary belching”, “playing radio at appropriate volume”
  • Daily living-feeding, sleeping, chores, phobias
  • Academics
  • Community??
how is training facilitated
Howis training facilitated?
  • Lecture/didactic, model, practice, feedback (McClannahan and Krantz, 1982)
  • Multiple exemplars
  • (Crocket, Fleming, Doepke, Stevens, 2005; Koegel, Glahn, Nieminen, 1978)
  • Pyramidal training (Kuhn, Lerman, Vorndran, 2003)
how mcclannahan krantz 1982
How?McClannahan Krantz, 1982
  • Establish a positive parent/home
  • programmer relationship
  • trainer serves as prompt and
  • reinforcer for parent participation
  • (high levels of reinforcement)
  • trainer is provided with materials on answers to frequently asked questions and materials related to frequently encountered problems with parent training
  • adequate follow-up support for parents
how mcclannahan krantz 198215
How?McClannahan Krantz,1982
  • Selection of Child Target Behaviors
  • Parent involvement for children’s
  • needs and intervention goals:
  • “informed and non-coerced consent”
  • Parents often fail to report significant child problems because they have adapted: important to provide home programmers with techniques for obtaining parent participation in interview
  • Home programmers encourage parents to choose goals that will lead to success initially. Next is dangerous or highly disruptive behaviors
how mcclannahan krantz 198216
How?McClannahan Krantz, 1982
  • Treatment Begins in School
  • Ensures that the kinks are worked out so that parents are not confused and frustrated when they implement at home
  • Parents come and observe new procedures
  • Parents rehearse procedures
  • Parent feedback
  • Advantages of being at school: eliminates interferences and increases parent attention, availability of professionals, training trainers
how mcclannahan krantz 198217
How?McClannahan Krantz, 1982
  • Parent Implementation At Home
  • Generalization of parent skills from school to home is facilitated when home programmer directly supervises initial use of intervention procedures at home
  • Parent training in home increases reinforcing value of parents
  • Trainers must establish guidelines for interactions
  • Package should be set up with all materials necessary for successfully implementing program
  • As parents skills improve, more programs can be added
how mcclannahan krantz 1982 data collection
How?McClannahan Krantz, 1982Data Collection
  • Baseline: When parents take baseline data it may eliminate the need for formal intervention
  • Parents need to submit data weekly in a timely fashion
  • Many parents were not returning data so a prompting model was created
how mcclannahan krantz 198219
How?McClannahan Krantz, 1982
  • Data Prompting Procedure
  • Data sheets were expected to be in by Monday morning
  • Administration checked for data sheets Monday morning
  • If received there were no further prompts and positive praise was often given
  • If data sheets were not received, home programmer sent note home asking them to send it in tomorrow
  • If data sheets were received on Tuesday, no further prompts
  • If data sheets were not received, administrator called parents and have a “brief pleasant conversation”: any illnesses or special problems?
  • If data sheets were received on Wednesday, no further prompts
  • If data sheets were not received, phone call from home programmer: problems related to data collection or intervention procedure? Immediate home visit needed?
  • Continue to check for data sheets
how mcclannahan krantz 1982 external review
How?McClannahan Krantz, 1982External Review
  • Professionals from beyond the
  • treatment agency
  • Assess individualized home programs delivered by parents: effectiveness and appropriateness
  • More than 2/3 of the home program were considered successful
  • None were considered inappropriate
how multiple exemplars crocket fleming doepke stevens 2005 koegel glahn nieminen 1978
How?Multiple ExemplarsCrocket, Fleming, Doepke, Stevens, 2005; Koegel, Glahn, Nieminen, 1978
  • Some parents are able to generalize training skill from one intervention to another with little training
  • Others are unable to do so
  • Providing multiple exemplars increases generalization
  • Determining what parents need and do not need multiple exemplars can help with cost efficiency
how pyramidal training kuhn lerman vorndran 2003
How?Pyramidal Training Kuhn, Lerman, Vorndran, 2003
  • Primary caregiver trains other family members
  • More cost efficient way of training multiple family members
  • Primary caregiver training 1: written and verbal instruction, role play, immediate and delayed feedback
  • Primary caregiver training 2: taught to give written and verbal instruction, role play, immediate and delayed feedback
  • Other caregiver training: primary caregiver instructed other caregivers to implement treatment using specified procedures
  • 1 out of 3 students was successful
how pyramidal training kuhn lerman vorndran 200325
How?Pyramidal Training Kuhn, Lerman, Vorndran, 2003
  • Most caregivers achieved very high accuracy of responses when implementing procedure
how pyramidal training kuhn lerman vorndran 200326
How?Pyramidal Training Kuhn, Lerman, Vorndran, 2003
  • Only one out of the three students exhibited significant decrease in behavior with all three caregivers
considerations
Family Context (Moes, Frea, 2002)

Parental Perspective (Geiger, Smith, Creaghead, 2002)

Non-adherence (Allen, Warzak, 2000)

Considerations
alpine learning group alg
Alpine Learning Group(ALG)

Family Involvement

  • 3 hours per month school observation
  • Attendance at monthly parent meetings
  • Home visits by family consultant
family consultation
Family Consultation
  • Goals:
    • Ensure stimulus generalization
    • Assist families in teaching functional skills
    • Address problem behavior
    • Ensure parents/caregivers can use the techniques necessary to increase skills and address problem behavior
alpine offerings
Alpine Offerings
  • Upon Enrolling:
    • Offered weekly home visits (during first year)
    • Participation in a didactic parent training course
  • Second Year:
    • Home visitation every other week
  • Third Year and throughout:
    • One home visitation per month
assessment of home and community functioning
Assessment of Home and Community Functioning
  • At time of Enrollment:
    • Home and community skills assessment conducted. Domains include: self-care, leisure skills, domestic skills, receptive and expressive language, community skills, and problem behavior.
  • Working Together:
    • Family consultants work with parents in prioritizing objectives and identifying relevant teaching strategies.
    • Example: Parent’s may want their child to be involved in a community recreation program- ALG family consultant may be required to visit the recreation site and train personnel there.
parent visits
Parent Visits
  • ALG- open door policy:
    • Parent’s can observe as often as they like (minimum of 3 hours is required each month)
    • Clipboard with questions about their visit

* “Did you achieve the goals of your visit?”

    • Interactions are minimal to none with teaching staff and learner’s during visits- set time aside for training sessions
    • Communication:

* Daily communication book, e-mail or telephone contact

parent meetings
Parent Meetings
  • Monthly group meetings

(Parents, directors, and teachers)

    • Average of 8 held yearly
    • Topics: ALG policies and procedures, Agency issues, current topics and issues, and general programming issues.
consumer evaluation
Consumer Evaluation
  • Annual basis:
    • Formally asked to share concerns or compliments to ALG programs (anonymous consumer evaluation)

*Rate overall effectiveness of intervention services by responding to a written questionnaire

Example: “How satisfied are you with the amount of cooperation and assistance you have received from ALG administrative staff this school year?”

princeton child development institute pcdi
Princeton Child Development Institute(PCDI)
  • Parents are welcomed for school visits
  • Home Programmer-regularly visits the home
  • Consent for new intervention (parents observe, collect data, and implement with assistance)
  • Program comes home when target skills are acquired at school.
upon returning home from school examples
Upon returning home from schoolexamples:
  • A 9-year old learns to remain independently engaged in leisure activities for longer time periods.
  • A 10-year old helps unloading the dishwasher, setting the table and folding towels.
  • A 12-year old completes homework assignments with minimal assistance.
  • A young teenager independently follows an activity schedule to complete a workout (treadmill)
  • An older adolescent independently wakes up when his alarm clock rings, makes his bed, showers, and shaves with minimal supervision.
behavioral contracts help the children
Behavioral Contracts help the children:
  • Arrive at school with completed homework assignments, school lunches THEY made the previous evening, wristwatches (appointment-keeping skills), wallets, notes from parents, vacuumed room etc.
  • These independent performances are valued by parents and they expand the student’s opportunities to hold jobs in the future.
douglass developmental disabilities center dddc
Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center(DDDC)
  • Parent training sessions (first enrolled)
  • Visits twice a month from a home-school consultant
  • Focus of training sessions: principles of ABA, elaboration on behavioral teaching, and prioritizing goals
  • Generalization checks and community based learning experiences.
communication
Communication
  • Weekly phone calls*
  • Exchanges of data*
  • Monthly clinics*
  • Support services
  • Four times a year evening meetings
  • Yearly conference (Douglass Organization for Occupational and Related Educational Services DOORS)
summary of all 3 programs
Summary of all 3 Programs
  • School visitation offered (some required)
  • Home visitations are done
  • Parent meetings/clinics or support groups offered
  • Training is offered (or required)
  • *Satisfaction rating and concerns* (not all)
group discussion
Group Discussion

What is missing?

purpose of home programming
Purpose of Home Programming
  • Provides training and support for parents
  • Promotes Generalization of Skills
  • Teaches families to be successful!
slide45

Home Programming

  • Develop a relationship
  • Design an Individualized Program
  • Begin instruction in school setting
  • Begin a home baseline
  • Parents observe program at school
  • Parents implement program at school
  • Parents implement program at home
  • Follow-up services provided
components of a home program
Components of a Home Program
  • Develop a Parent-Home Programmer Relationship
      • Introduction
      • Provide rationales
      • Describe components of home programming
          • Expectations
          • Frequency of visits
          • Discuss convenient times for home/school visits
          • Stress importance of collaboration
components of a home program47
Components of a Home Program
  • Identify Target Behaviors &

Design an Individualized Program

  • Select annual goals
  • Prioritize goals
  • Under-promise and over-deliver
  • Obtain parental consent on all

programs

components of a home program48
Components of a Home Program
  • Begin instruction in school setting
  • Conduct Baseline
  • Revise response definition
  • Monitor performance
  • Examine reinforcement

procedures

  • Consider WHERE

instructional procedure

will eventually be used.

PLAN accordingly.

components of a home program49
Components of a Home Program
  • Begin a home baseline
      • Revise individualized program for home setting
      • Prepare necessary materials
          • Data sheets
          • Reinforcement system
          • Stop watch / timer
          • Clipboard
      • Train parents on data collection
          • Response definitions
          • Practice data collection with them (role play)
          • Take IOA
components of a home program50
Components of a Home Program
  • Parents observe program in school
  • BEFORE parents arrive:
    • Make sure to fine-tune individualized program if necessary
    • Observe learner’s performance
    • Anticipate possible questions
components of a home program51
Components of a Home Program
  • Parents observe program in school
  • Meet with parents privately
    • Show current data / progress in program
    • Explain what they will be observing
  • Have parents OBSERVE program
    • Explain what they are watching
      • Focus on what teacher is doing with learner
    • Provide rationales
    • Review data collection procedure
components of a home program52
Components of a Home Program
  • Parents observe program in school

AFTER parents observe:

    • Invite / answer questions
    • Schedule next school

visit

components of a home program53
Components of a Home Program
  • Parents implement program at school
  • Praise parents for their participation
  • Model the procedure & invite questions
  • Parent delivers intervention procedure
  • Praise parent’s appropriate performances
  • Describe ineffective behavior
  • Provide rationales for change
components of a home program54
Components of a Home Program
  • Parents implement program at school
  • Describe an alternate, effective behavior & describe rationales
  • Request acknowledgement throughout training interaction
  • If needed, model the desired behavior again and have parent practice again
  • Provide feedback
  • Schedule next home visit
components of a home program55
Components of a Home Program
  • Parents implement program at home
  • Briefly review measurement and teaching procedures
  • Model the procedure & invite questions
  • Have parents deliver the intervention procedure
  • Provide feedback & rationales for change
  • Request acknowledgement & invite questions
components of a home program56
Components of a Home Program
  • Parents implement program at home
  • Repeat sequence multiple times if needed
  • Take IOA data if possible
  • Express appreciation for their

continued support

  • Schedule next home visit
components of a home program57
Components of a Home Program
  • Provide follow-up services
  • Review data on learner’s performance.
  • Invite questions about data collection, response definition, or intervention procedure.
  • Take data on learner’s performance and obtain IOA.
  • Observe parent implementing program and provide additional training if necessary.
  • Discuss importance of regular data collection.
  • Thank parents and schedule next visit.
tips for teachers
TIPS for Teachers

BE PREPARED

BE PROFESSIONAL

REMAIN FOCUSED

tips for parents
TIPS for Parents
  • Be consistent
  • Prepare materials and environment in advance
  • Give simple, clear directions
  • Reward your child immediately
  • Use physical guidance if necessary
  • Ignore off-task behaviors and praise appropriate behaviors
parent training ingersoll dvortcsak 2006
Parent Training(Ingersoll & Dvortcsak, 2006)

Used a 5 step teaching approach to train parents to provide the intervention: Building rapport, reviewing information, modeling techniques, providing feedback and building independence.

Showed an increase in parent satisfaction with improvement in children, but there was no data to indicate concrete proof of such.

Model similar to Wolf, et al (1995) The teaching-family model: The teaching interaction elements.

building rapport
Building Rapport

Make eye contact and use balanced turns in conversation.

Be competent and confident, but not egotistical

Point out what the parent is doing correctly

Acknowledge parent’s feeling of guilt and/or frustration

Listen to parent’s concerns

Remain professional

Avoid alliances with one parent against the other

reviewing information
Reviewing Information

Present only a few techniques at a time

Give rationale behind the technique

Describe the critical elements of technique

Check for understanding

Discuss how the technique can be used to target child’s goals

modeling techniques
Modeling Techniques

Model the technique with the child while the parent watches

Make sure the modeling takes up no more than 25% or the session

Use role-playing with the parent if he or she is having difficulty using the technique with the child

providing feedback
Providing Feedback

Provide feedback that is succinct but specific

Focus more on the positive than corrective feedback

Respond to almost everything the parent does (at least one comment every minute)

Give feedback on only a limited number of techniques per session

building independence
Building Independence

Discuss how to use the technique at home

Assign homework

Increase the amount of time the parent is working with the child

Decrease feedback and proximity to the parent and child as soon as possible

Have the parent practice across different settings and activities

what would you do
What wouldYOUdo?
  • A parent asks if you can provide training to their new nanny.
  • A parent gives you a gift to thank you for all that you’ve done for their child.
  • A parent begins to talk to you about private issues.
  • The parent blames themselves or others for their child’s disability.
  • Parent verbally agrees to corrective feedback, but fails to follow through.
  • Parent requests aversive procedures.
would a similar training model work in countries where the resources are not as abundant
Would a similar training model work in countries where the resources are not as abundant?

Autism is on the rise in many countries that do not have an appropriate number of professionals to help sufficiently. These countries include India, Malaysia and China.

China has between 400,00 and 800,000 children with autism. (Yanqing, 2006)

The development of social welfare and social insurance systems are far behind. Due to this, once a child is diagnosed, the parents (or primary caregiver) not the government or the community, take the responsibility for the child’s rehabilitation. (Yanqing, 2006)

china cont
China(cont.)

Autism diagnosis was first introduced in 1982. Main focus was diagnosis and clinical appearances.

Starting from the year 2000, more people were interested in rehabilitation.

Now ABA is extensively used for children with autism in China.

training parents and professionals to help children with autism in china yanqing 2006
Training parents and professionals to help children with autism in China(Yanqing, 2006)

ABA

  • Professionals were trained to train parents.
  • Parents were trained by professionals
    • Review and clarification of the training information.
    • Hand-in-hand instruction of training skills (modeling techniques ) with feedback.
    • Parents were given the option of extended feedback via videotaping. Intensive in the beginning then faded out as parents progressed in their training procedures.
training parents cont yanqing 2006
Training parents (cont)(Yanqing, 2006)

Feedback

= success!

37 out of 56 families who did not choose to receive follow up feedback, stopped their instruction to their children after 1 week due to problematic behaviors. 11 families chose to receive follow up, and have been very successful in training their children and are satisfied with the process and outcome.

Follow up (extended feedback) is extremely important to maintain skills and should be gradually faded to insure independence.

spousal feedback harris et al 1998
Spousal Feedback(Harris et al., 1998)

Explores the possibility of spousal feedback as a cost-efficient alternative to providing in-home feedback.

3 husband-and-wife dyads.

Didactic presentations of the instructional material.

Parents trained in both how to appropriately give as well as receive feedback.

5 out of 6 participants showed improvement in teaching performance after spousal feedback component was implemented.

spousal feedback
Spousal Feedback

How a mother feels about this possibility?

Could this be a feasible option? Yes! (Harris, et al., 1998)

One advantage is more naturally occurring opportunities to observe and give feedback.

One key component is the feedback training (how to give and receive) the participants received.

Future study to explore could be a staff member initially providing the feedback (modeling it) and then training the parents to assume the responsibility.

things to consider i e interesting reading
Things to consideri.e. Interesting Reading

Different cultures: (Santareli, Koegel, Casas & Koegel, 2001; Elder, Valcante, Won & Zylis, 2003).

Maintance and Generalization: (Crockett, Fleming, Doepke & Stevens, 2005; Koegel, Glahn & Nieminen, 1978).

Agreement on behaviors to target: (McClannahan, Krantz & McGee, 1982)

parent feedback summary
Parent Feedback Summary

Praise what the parent is doing correctly (at least 75% positive feedback to 25% corrective feedback)

Make sure feedback is behavior specific and try to focus on a limited number of techniques per session.

What not to do

parent feedback summary cont
Parent Feedback Summary (cont.)

Start with a dense amount of feedback and then fade to create independence

Attempt to have the parents work as a team and do not form alliances with one over the other

Use child based rationales when giving feedback

surveys
Surveys

Consumer evaluation- school specific (ex. E:\consumer eval parent questionaire.doc)

What training would you like to receive? (ex. E:\What parents like to be trained on.doc)

Effectiveness of training (ex. E:\Training Satisfaction Survey.doc)

Satisfaction-child specific (ex. E:\PCDI Satisfaction Rating.doc)

parent interview
Parent Interview

Gloria’s daughter is 9 years old (diagnosed at 3) and has been in 3 private schools since diagnosis. Comments on parent training offered from these schools.

Should there be a home/parent training piece offered to parents from the school their child attends?

How she prefers to be trained.

How to get proper training.

references
References
  • Allen, Keith D.; Warzack, William, J. The problem of parental nonadhernce in clinical behavior analysis: effective treatment is not enough. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol 33(3) Fall 2000, 373-391.
  • Anderson, C.; McMillan K.; Parental use of escape extinction and differential reinforcement to treat food selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Vol 34(4) 2001, 511–515.
  • Charlop, Marjorie, H.; Trasowech, Jane E. Increasing autistic children’s daily spontaneous speech. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol 24 (4), Win 1991, 747-761.
  • Crockett, Jennifer L.; Fleming, Richard K.; Doepke, Karla J.; Stevens, Jenny S. Parent training: Acquisition and generalization of discrete trials teaching skills with parents of children with autism. Vol 28(1) Win 2007, 23-36.
  • Crockett, J.L., Fleming, R.K., Doepke, K.J & Stevens, J.S. (2005). Parent training: Acquisition and generalization of discrete trails teaching skills with parents of children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, pp. 23-36.
  • Elder, J.H., Valcante, G., Won, D. & Zylis, R. (2003). Effects of in-home training for culturally diverse fathers of children with autism. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 24, pp. 273-295.
  • Geiger, Diane M.; Smith, David T.; Creaghead, Nancy A. Parent and professional agreement on cognitive level of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Vol 32(4) Aug 2002, 301-312.
references79
References
  • Handleman, Jan S. Generalization by autistic-type children of verbal responses across settings. [Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal] Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Vol 12(2) Sum 1979, 273-282.
  • Handleman, Jan S; Harris, Sandra L. Generalization across instructional settings by autistic children. [Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal] Child & Family Behavior Therapy. Vol 5(1) Spr 1983, 73-83.
  • Handleman, Jan S; Harris, Sandra L. Generalization from school to home with autistic children. [Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal] Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Vol 10(3) Sep 1980, 323-333.
  • Harris, T.A., Peterson, S.L., Filliben, T.L., Glassberg, M. & Favell, J.E. (1998). Evaluating a more cost-efficient alternative to providing in-home feedback to parents: The use of spousal feedback. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, pp. 131-134.
  • Hastings, Richard, Johnson, Emma. Stressing UK families conducting intensive home-based behavioral intervention for their young child with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol 31 (3) 2001, 327-336.
references80
References
  • Ingersoll, B. & Dvortcsak, A. (2006). Including Parent Training in the Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, pp. 79-87.
  • Iovannone, Rose; Dunlap, Glen; Huber, Heather; Kincaid, Don. Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, Fall2003, Vol. 18 Issue 3, p150-165.
  • Koegel, R.L., Glahn, T.J. & Nieminen, G.S. (1978). Generalization of Parent-Training Results. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, pp. 95-109.
  • Koegel, Robert L.; Bimbella, Alfredo; Schreibman, Laura. Collateral effects of parent training on family interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol 26(3), June 1996, 347-359.
  • Koegel, Robert L.; Glahn, T.J.; Nieminen, Gayla S. Generalization of parent-training results. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Vol 11 Spr 1978, 95-109.
  • Koegel, Robert L; Egel, Andrew L; Williams, Julie A. Behavioral contrast and generalization across settings in the treatment of autistic children. [Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal] Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Vol 30(3) Dec 1980, 422-437.
references81
References
  • Krantz, Patricia J.; MacDuff, Michael T.; McClannahan, Lynn E. Programming participation in family activities for children with autism: Parents’ use of photographic activity schedules. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol 26(1) Spr 1993, 137-138.
  • Kuhn, Stephanie A.; Lerman, Dorothea C.;Vorndran, Christina M. Pyramidal training for families of children with problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Vol 36 Spri 2003, 77-88.
  • McClannahan, L.E., & Krantz, P.J. (2001). The Princeton Child Development Institute. In J.S. Handleman & S.L. Handlman (Eds.), Preschool Education Programs for Children with Autism-Second Edition (pp.191-213). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
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