Family Collaboration & Home Programming. Alyssa Blum Elena Garcia-Albea Hannah Kaplan Catherine Taylor. Why Parent Collaboration? Research Findings Program Models & Approaches What’s Missing? Home Programming Tips for Teachers & Parents Working with Parents
* “Did you achieve the goals of your visit?”
* Daily communication book, e-mail or telephone contact
(Parents, directors, and teachers)
*Rate overall effectiveness of intervention services by responding to a written questionnaire
Example: “How satisfied are you with the amount of cooperation and assistance you have received from ALG administrative staff this school year?”
What is missing?
Design an Individualized Program
will eventually be used.
AFTER parents observe:
Used a 5 step teaching approach to train parents to provide the intervention: Building rapport, reviewing information, modeling techniques, providing feedback and building independence.
Showed an increase in parent satisfaction with improvement in children, but there was no data to indicate concrete proof of such.
Model similar to Wolf, et al (1995) The teaching-family model: The teaching interaction elements.
Make eye contact and use balanced turns in conversation.
Be competent and confident, but not egotistical
Point out what the parent is doing correctly
Acknowledge parent’s feeling of guilt and/or frustration
Listen to parent’s concerns
Avoid alliances with one parent against the other
Present only a few techniques at a time
Give rationale behind the technique
Describe the critical elements of technique
Check for understanding
Discuss how the technique can be used to target child’s goals
Model the technique with the child while the parent watches
Make sure the modeling takes up no more than 25% or the session
Use role-playing with the parent if he or she is having difficulty using the technique with the child
Provide feedback that is succinct but specific
Focus more on the positive than corrective feedback
Respond to almost everything the parent does (at least one comment every minute)
Give feedback on only a limited number of techniques per session
Discuss how to use the technique at home
Increase the amount of time the parent is working with the child
Decrease feedback and proximity to the parent and child as soon as possible
Have the parent practice across different settings and activities
Autism is on the rise in many countries that do not have an appropriate number of professionals to help sufficiently. These countries include India, Malaysia and China.
China has between 400,00 and 800,000 children with autism. (Yanqing, 2006)
The development of social welfare and social insurance systems are far behind. Due to this, once a child is diagnosed, the parents (or primary caregiver) not the government or the community, take the responsibility for the child’s rehabilitation. (Yanqing, 2006)
Autism diagnosis was first introduced in 1982. Main focus was diagnosis and clinical appearances.
Starting from the year 2000, more people were interested in rehabilitation.
Now ABA is extensively used for children with autism in China.
37 out of 56 families who did not choose to receive follow up feedback, stopped their instruction to their children after 1 week due to problematic behaviors. 11 families chose to receive follow up, and have been very successful in training their children and are satisfied with the process and outcome.
Follow up (extended feedback) is extremely important to maintain skills and should be gradually faded to insure independence.
Explores the possibility of spousal feedback as a cost-efficient alternative to providing in-home feedback.
3 husband-and-wife dyads.
Didactic presentations of the instructional material.
Parents trained in both how to appropriately give as well as receive feedback.
5 out of 6 participants showed improvement in teaching performance after spousal feedback component was implemented.
How a mother feels about this possibility?
Could this be a feasible option? Yes! (Harris, et al., 1998)
One advantage is more naturally occurring opportunities to observe and give feedback.
One key component is the feedback training (how to give and receive) the participants received.
Future study to explore could be a staff member initially providing the feedback (modeling it) and then training the parents to assume the responsibility.
Different cultures: (Santareli, Koegel, Casas & Koegel, 2001; Elder, Valcante, Won & Zylis, 2003).
Maintance and Generalization: (Crockett, Fleming, Doepke & Stevens, 2005; Koegel, Glahn & Nieminen, 1978).
Agreement on behaviors to target: (McClannahan, Krantz & McGee, 1982)
Praise what the parent is doing correctly (at least 75% positive feedback to 25% corrective feedback)
Make sure feedback is behavior specific and try to focus on a limited number of techniques per session.
What not to do
Start with a dense amount of feedback and then fade to create independence
Attempt to have the parents work as a team and do not form alliances with one over the other
Use child based rationales when giving feedback
Consumer evaluation- school specific (ex. E:\consumer eval parent questionaire.doc)
What training would you like to receive? (ex. E:\What parents like to be trained on.doc)
Effectiveness of training (ex. E:\Training Satisfaction Survey.doc)
Satisfaction-child specific (ex. E:\PCDI Satisfaction Rating.doc)
Gloria’s daughter is 9 years old (diagnosed at 3) and has been in 3 private schools since diagnosis. Comments on parent training offered from these schools.
Should there be a home/parent training piece offered to parents from the school their child attends?
How she prefers to be trained.
How to get proper training.
Santareli, G., Koegel, R.L, Casas, J.M. & Koegel, L.K. (2001). Culturally Diverse Families Participating in Behavior Therapy Parent Education Programs for Children with Developmental Disabilities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3, pp120-123.
Strain, Philip S.; Danko, Cassandra D. Caregivers’ encouragement of positive interactions between preschoolers with autism and their siblings. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, Jan1995, Vol. 3 (1), 2-13.
Wolf, M.M., Kirigin, K.A., Fixsen, D.L., Blase, K.A. & Braukmann, C.J. (1995). The teaching-family model: A case study in data-based program development and Refinement (And Dragon Wrestling). Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 15, pp 11-68.
Yanqing, Guo. (2006). Training parents and professionals to help children with autism in China: The contribution of behaviour analysis. International Journal of Psychology, 41, pp. 523-526.