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Ethics in Medical Radiography

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  1. Ethics in Medical Radiography Rolly R. Reyes, BS, RT(R)

  2. What we will cover: • Definition and characteristics of ethics • Ethics in health care • ARRT Radiographer’s Code of Ethics • Patient’s Bill of Rights • Bioethics • Bioethical Dilemmas

  3. Definition of Ethics “A system or code of conduct and morals advocated by a particular individual or group”

  4. Ethics Characteristics • Branch of Philosophy • Understanding determinations and motivations based on conceptions of “right” and “wrong.” • No rigid guidelines or strict rules • Relatively stable, but can change over time as people’s conception change.

  5. “Ethnocentrism” • The notion that one’s own ethnic group or culture is superior to that of others.

  6. Ethics in the delivery of health care • Ethics at the workplace • Use of equipment & supplies • Interactions with patients & co-workers • Professional Comportment • Bearing - confidence • Appearance • Communication – Verbal & Non-verbal • Punctuality • Being dependable

  7. Ethics in the delivery of health care • Professional Continuing Education • Now mandatory • Increased knowledge • Professional growth • Participation at Professional Society meetings • Attendance • Giving talks • Poster Sessions • Serving on committees • CSRT, ACERT, ASRT

  8. ARRT Technologist’s Code of Ethics (10) • Principle #1 • Conducts self in a professional manner

  9. ARRT Technologist’s Code of Ethics (10) • Principle #3 • Delivers patient care and service unrestricted by concerns of personal attributes or the nature of the disease or illness, and without discrimination on the basis of sex, race, creed, religion, or socio-economic status.

  10. ARRT Technologist’s Code of Ethics (10) • Principle #6 • Acts as an agent through observation and communication to obtain pertinent information for the physician to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient.

  11. ARRT Technologist’s Code of Ethics (10) • Principle #7 • Demonstrates expertise in minimizing radiation exposure to the patient, self and other members of the health care team.

  12. ARRT Technologist’s Code of Ethics (10) • Principle #10 • Strives to improve knowledge and skills by participating in continuing education and professional activities.

  13. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #1 • The patient has the right to considerate and respectful care.

  14. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #2 • The patient has the right to be well informed about their illness, possible treatments, and likely outcome. The patient has the right to know the names and roles of the people treating them.

  15. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #3 • The patient has the right to consent to or refuse a treatment as permitted by law. If a patient refuses a recommended treatment they will receive other needed and available care.

  16. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #5 • The patient has the right to privacy.

  17. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #6 • The patient has the right to expect that treatment records are confidential unless the patient has given permission to release that information.

  18. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #7 • The patient has the right to review their medical record and to have the information explained, except where restricted by law.

  19. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #8 • The patient has the right to expect that the hospital will provide necessary health services to the best of its ability.

  20. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #9 • The patient has the right to know if this hospital has relationships with outside parties that may influence your treatment and care.

  21. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #10 • The patient has the right to consent or decline to take part in research affecting your care.

  22. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #11 • The patient has the right to be told of realistic care alternatives when hospital care is no longer appropriate.

  23. AHA Patient’s Bill of Rights (12) • Right #12 • The patient has the right to know hospital rules that will affect them and their treatment, and about charges and payment methods.

  24. Bioethics • Branch of ethics dealing with the ethical problems arising from scientific advances, esp. in biology and medicine. • Relatively new discipline • Accepted in health care • Gives rise to “Bioethical Dilemmas”

  25. Bioethical Dilemma • Situation requiring moral judgement between two or more equally problem-fraught alternatives; there are two or more competing moral norms present, creating a challenge about what to do • There isn’t any one right thing to do

  26. Examples of Bioethical Dilemmas • “Code Blue” • Full code, Slow code, No code • “DNR” order • Euthanasia (“Mercy Killing,” “Right to die”) • Abortion • Organ transplantation • When to harvest organs – definition of “death” • Priority in assigning organs • Animal organs

  27. Examples of Bioethical Dilemmas • Triaging of patients • HIV Positive Patient • Artificial Insemination • Cryonics/cryogenics • Genetic engineering • Others?

  28. Bioethical Dilemmas “As technological advancements continue to be made more Bioethical Dilemmas will be experienced in many aspects of private and professional life.” The radiographer must think about how you will respond to these issues before you are confronted by them.

  29. In Summary • Ethical principles are an important part of your professional life as a radiographer. • There are many components to Professional Ethics • In most cases there are no completely “right” or “wrong” answers to ethical dilemmas • You need to think about, and determine now, how you will respond to various bioethical dilemmas that you may encounter.