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Computer Systems 1 Fundamentals of Computing The CPU & Von Neumann The CPU & Von-Neumann What’s in the box? – reminder CPU Overview Control Unit ALU Registers Catching a Bus Tying it all together Mr Von Neumann His legacy Computer Architecture CPU Central processing Unit

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the cpu von neumann
The CPU & Von-Neumann
  • What’s in the box? – reminder
  • CPU Overview
    • Control Unit
    • ALU
    • Registers
  • Catching a Bus
    • Tying it all together
  • Mr Von Neumann
    • His legacy

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

computer architecture
Computer Architecture
  • CPU
    • Central processing Unit
    • Speed measure in clock cycles
      • Hertz (Hz) – usually MHz or GHz
      • How quickly the CPU can execute instructions
  • CPU often measured in ‘bits’
    • 32-bit Processor / 64-bit processor
    • Confusion!!
      • Is this CPU memory word length?
      • Is this data bus width?

usually the answer

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

central processing unit cpu

ALU

Control

Unit

CPU

High Speed Registers

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • CPU has three important parts:
    • ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)
    • Control Unit
    • Registers

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

central processing unit cpu5
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Arithmetic & Logic Unit
    • Handles mathematical and logical functions (numerical)
    • Deals with non-numerical logic operations
  • Control Unit
    • Handles all low-level hardware operations
      • Input & Output Devices and CPU
    • Carries out instruction handling
      • Fetch Execute Cycle

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

cpu registers
CPU Registers
  • Storage areas within the CPU
    • Used to temporarily store data read from memory
  • Accessible at High Speed
  • Anything for processing must be kept in a register
  • Can also hold the address of a memory location
  • Registers are used to process instructions and data during the Fetch Execute Cycle
    • Two main types of register:
      • Instruction Register (IR)
        • Commands to be performed
      • Data Registers
        • Data upon which operations will be performed

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

cpu registers7
CPU Registers
  • Common registers in the CPU:
    • Program Counter (PC)
      • Holds the memory address of the next instruction to be executed
    • Memory Buffer Register (MBR)
      • Briefly holds data and instructions that travel to and from memory
      • Sometimes called MDR (Memory Data Register)

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

cpu registers8
CPU Registers
  • Common registers in the CPU:
    • Memory Address Register (MAR)
      • Holds the memory address locations of data and/or instructions to be read / written to memory
    • Current Instruction Register (CIR)
      • Holds the instruction which is to be executed
    • General Purpose Registers
      • ‘Working areas’ for data processed by the ALU

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

buses
Buses
  • A collection of wires which connects together the internal components of the computer
    • Allows transfer of data
  • Main types of bus:
    • Data bus
      • Carries actual data bits (information)
    • Address bus
      • Transfers locations where data should be sent
    • Control bus
      • Carries status information

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

buses10

CPU

INPUT

OUTPUT

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

MEMORY

Buses
  • How buses fit into the computer system:

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

cpu buses
CPU Buses
  • Parallel connections between low-level components of the computer
    • Size is measured by the number of parallel connections on the bus
      • E.g.- 32-bit wide bus = 32 individual wires
      • These bursts are called words
      • A word is a set measure of bits (in this case we have a 32-bit word)
  • Signals on buses follow strict timing sequences
  • Some buses are bi-directional
    • Allowing two way flow of information

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

computer architecture12
Computer Architecture
  • The Von Neumann Model
    • 1903 - 1957
    • Mathematician
    • Quantum physicist
    • Worked on ENIAC
      • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
      • Major development in computer technology
    • Responsible for developing the Fetch Execute Cycle, and his namesake -
      • ‘Von Neumann Model’
    • The original computer geek?!

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

von neumann model
Von Neumann Model
  • Logically defines a complete computer system
  • Centralised control of all processes of the computer system
  • Defines main parts of the machine:
    • Memory
      • Storage for instructions and data
    • Processing unit
      • ALU functions
    • Control unit
      • Interpreting instructions
      • Issuing commands
    • Input and Output
      • For entering and retrieving data

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

von neumann model14
Von Neumann Model
  • Logical Structure of the computer system
    • Routes of data transfer during processing

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

von neumann model15
Von Neumann Model
  • Problem?
    • Von-Neumann Bottleneck
    • All instructions must be retrieved from memory before they are processed
      • Memory (RAM) runs at slower speeds than the processor is capable of
      • The difference between the speed of the RAM and the speed of the processor is the ‘bottleneck’
      • This is being remedied by faster RAM technologies
        • Such as SDRAM

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)

cs1 week 6
CS1: Week 6
  • What you know now:
    • CPU Architecture
      • Bit size
      • ALU
      • Control Unit
      • Registers
        • Many different types
      • Buses
        • Address
        • Control
        • Data
    • Von Neumann Model
      • Problems!

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)