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Fields of Experience Source / Sender Receiver / Audience Channel Encoding Decoding MESSAGE Response Feedback Loop The Communications Process Noise Human Communicators Verbal Vocabulary Grammar Inflection Nonverbal Gestures Facial expression Body language Product

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the communications process

Fields of Experience

Source /

Sender

Receiver /

Audience

Channel

Encoding

Decoding

MESSAGE

Response Feedback Loop

The Communications Process

Noise

human communicators
Human Communicators
  • Verbal
    • Vocabulary
    • Grammar
    • Inflection
  • Nonverbal
    • Gestures
    • Facial expression
    • Body language
product
Product

Movie:Bring it On

source
Source

• the sender of a message.

• UniversalStudios

encoding
Encoding

• converting a message into symbols.

• preparation of an ad

message channel
Message Channel

• the medium that carries a message.

• television ad

receiver
Receiver

• the intended recipient of a message.

• televisionviewers in a specific target market

decoding
Decoding

• converting the symbols back into concepts.

• watching the television ad

noise
Noise

• something that interferes with the communications process.

• mom’s babbling during the commercial.

feedback
Feedback

• the receiver’s response to the message.

• Kelly talks some guy into taking her to Bring It On.

models of obtaining feedback

Circulation reach, ratings

Exposure, presentation

Starch scores,

direct observation

Attention

Interpretation,

objective tests

Comprehension

Attitude scales,

purchase intent scales

Persuasion

Recall, recognition

over time

Retention/memory

Inventory, POP,

consumer panel

Purchase behavior

Models of Obtaining Feedback

Effectiveness Test

Persuasion Process

traditional response hierarchy models
Traditional Response Hierarchy Models

Learn

(awareness/knowledge)

Feel

(like/dislike)

Do

(action)

Which comes first?

foote cone belding grid
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Thinking

Feeling

1

Informative

The Thinker

2

Affective

The Feeler

High

Involvement

3

Habit

Formation

The Doer

4

Self-

Satisfaction

The Reactor

Low

Involvement

foote cone belding grid14
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Thinking

1

Informative

The Thinker

Car-house-furnishings-new products

Model: Learn-feel-do (economic?)

Possible implications

Test: Recall diagnostics

Media: Long copy format

Reflective vehicles

Creative: Specific information

Demonstration

High

Involvement

Saturn Ad

foote cone belding grid15
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Feeling

2

Affective

The Feeler

Jewelry-cosmetics-fashion goods

Model: Feel-learn -do (psychological?)

Possible implications

Test: Attitude change

Emotional arousal

Media: Large space

Image specials

Creative: Executional

Impact

High

Involvement

Victoria’s Secret Ad

foote cone belding grid16
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Thinking

3

Habit formation

The Doer

Food-household items

Model: Do-learn-feel (responsive?)

Possible implications

Test: Sales

Media: Small space ads

10-second ID’s

Radio; Point of Sale

Creative: Reminder

Low

Involvement

Trident Ad

foote cone belding grid17
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Feeling

4

Self-satisfaction

The Reactor

Cigarettes, liquor, candy

Model: Do-feel-learn (social?)

Possible implications

Test: Sales

Media: Billboards

Newspapers

Point of Sale

Creative: Attention

Low

Involvement

communications 3 influences
Communications: 3 Influences
  • Source Factors
  • Message Factors
    • Message Structure
    • Message Appeal
  • Channel Factors
source attributes and receiver processing modes

Compliance

Power

Identification

Attractiveness

Internalization

Credibility

Source Attributes andReceiver Processing Modes

Source attribute

Process

source power
Source Power
  • Stems from:
    • Perceived control
    • Perceived concern
    • Perceived scrutiny
source attractiveness
Source Attractiveness
  • Similarity
    • Resemblance between the source and recipient of the message
  • Familiarity
    • Knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure
  • Likability
    • Affection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits

The “Q Score”: Marketing Evaluations, Inc.

source credibility
Source Credibility
  • The extend to which the source is seen as having:
    • Knowledge
    • Skill
    • Expertise
  • And the information is seen to be:
    • Trustworthy
    • Unbiased
    • Objective

Expertise

Trustworthiness

the use of celebrities
The Use of Celebrities
  • Endorsements
    • The celebrity, whether an expert or not, merely agrees to the use of his or her name and image in the promotion for the product.
  • Testimonials
    • The celebrity, usually an expert with experience with the product, attests to its value and worth.
  • Placements
    • The brand is "placed" in a movie or TV show where it's seen by the audience and used or associated with the characters.
the use of celebrities24
The Use of Celebrities
  • Dramatizations
    • Celebrity actors or models portray the brand in use during dramatic enactments designed to show the goods.
  • Representatives
    • The celebrity agrees to become a spokesperson for the brand through multiple media over an extended time period.
  • Identification
    • The celebrity, usually in partnership with a producer, introduces his or her own brand using the celebrity name as the brand name.
meaning movement and the endorsement process

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Objects

Persons

Context

Role 1

Celebrity

Celebrity

Product

Product

Consumer

Role 2

Role 3

Meaning Movement andthe Endorsement Process
message factors
Message Factors
  • Message Structure
    • Central vs. Peripheral cues
    • Order of presentation
    • Conclusion drawing
    • Message sidedness
    • Refutation
    • Verbal versus visual
the elaboration likelihood model
The Elaboration Likelihood Model

Exposure to marketing message

High involvement with

product, message or decision

Low involvement with

product, message or decision

Strong attention focused on

central, product-related features

and factual information

Limited attention focused on

peripheral, nonproduct features and

feelings

Conscious thoughts about product

attributes and use outcomes; high

elaboration

Low or nonconscious information

processing; little or no elaboration

Enduring attitude change

Ad Ab Intentions

Attitude change through affective

route. It is not enduring.

message factors29
Message Factors
  • Message Appeals
    • Comparative
    • Fear appeals
    • Humor
fear appeals and message acceptance
Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance

Facilitating effects

Resultant

nonmonotonic curve

Acceptance

Level of fear

Rejection

Inhibiting effects

use of humor
Use of Humor
  • Aids attention and awareness
    • May harm complex copy recall and comprehension
    • May aid name and simple copy registration
    • May aid retention, if humor related to brand benefits
  • Effects on persuasion
    • May aid persuasion to switch brands
    • Creates positive mood, enhancing persuasion
  • Does not aid source credibility
  • Is not effective in bringing about action, sales
channel factors
Channel Factors
  • Alternative mass media
  • Context and environment
  • Clutter
  • Personal vs. non-personal media
do they have what it takes
Do they have what it takes…?
  • Jenny Craig ad
  • 007 Trailer
  • Arizona Dept of Health ad
  • EDS ad
  • Pepsi ad
  • Allegra ad