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The Communications Process

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  1. Fields of Experience Source / Sender Receiver / Audience Channel Encoding Decoding MESSAGE Response Feedback Loop The Communications Process Noise

  2. Human Communicators • Verbal • Vocabulary • Grammar • Inflection • Nonverbal • Gestures • Facial expression • Body language

  3. Product Movie:Bring it On

  4. Source • the sender of a message. • UniversalStudios

  5. Encoding • converting a message into symbols. • preparation of an ad

  6. Message Channel • the medium that carries a message. • television ad

  7. Receiver • the intended recipient of a message. • televisionviewers in a specific target market

  8. Decoding • converting the symbols back into concepts. • watching the television ad

  9. Noise • something that interferes with the communications process. • mom’s babbling during the commercial.

  10. Feedback • the receiver’s response to the message. • Kelly talks some guy into taking her to Bring It On.

  11. Circulation reach, ratings Exposure, presentation Starch scores, direct observation Attention Interpretation, objective tests Comprehension Attitude scales, purchase intent scales Persuasion Recall, recognition over time Retention/memory Inventory, POP, consumer panel Purchase behavior Models of Obtaining Feedback Effectiveness Test Persuasion Process

  12. Traditional Response Hierarchy Models Learn (awareness/knowledge) Feel (like/dislike) Do (action) Which comes first?

  13. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking Feeling 1 Informative The Thinker 2 Affective The Feeler High Involvement 3 Habit Formation The Doer 4 Self- Satisfaction The Reactor Low Involvement

  14. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking 1 Informative The Thinker Car-house-furnishings-new products Model: Learn-feel-do (economic?) Possible implications Test: Recall diagnostics Media: Long copy format Reflective vehicles Creative: Specific information Demonstration High Involvement Saturn Ad

  15. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Feeling 2 Affective The Feeler Jewelry-cosmetics-fashion goods Model: Feel-learn -do (psychological?) Possible implications Test: Attitude change Emotional arousal Media: Large space Image specials Creative: Executional Impact High Involvement Victoria’s Secret Ad

  16. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking 3 Habit formation The Doer Food-household items Model: Do-learn-feel (responsive?) Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Small space ads 10-second ID’s Radio; Point of Sale Creative: Reminder Low Involvement Trident Ad

  17. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Feeling 4 Self-satisfaction The Reactor Cigarettes, liquor, candy Model: Do-feel-learn (social?) Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Billboards Newspapers Point of Sale Creative: Attention Low Involvement

  18. Communications: 3 Influences • Source Factors • Message Factors • Message Structure • Message Appeal • Channel Factors

  19. Compliance Power Identification Attractiveness Internalization Credibility Source Attributes andReceiver Processing Modes Source attribute Process

  20. Source Power • Stems from: • Perceived control • Perceived concern • Perceived scrutiny

  21. Source Attractiveness • Similarity • Resemblance between the source and recipient of the message • Familiarity • Knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure • Likability • Affection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits The “Q Score”: Marketing Evaluations, Inc.

  22. Source Credibility • The extend to which the source is seen as having: • Knowledge • Skill • Expertise • And the information is seen to be: • Trustworthy • Unbiased • Objective Expertise Trustworthiness

  23. The Use of Celebrities • Endorsements • The celebrity, whether an expert or not, merely agrees to the use of his or her name and image in the promotion for the product. • Testimonials • The celebrity, usually an expert with experience with the product, attests to its value and worth. • Placements • The brand is "placed" in a movie or TV show where it's seen by the audience and used or associated with the characters.

  24. The Use of Celebrities • Dramatizations • Celebrity actors or models portray the brand in use during dramatic enactments designed to show the goods. • Representatives • The celebrity agrees to become a spokesperson for the brand through multiple media over an extended time period. • Identification • The celebrity, usually in partnership with a producer, introduces his or her own brand using the celebrity name as the brand name.

  25. Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Objects Persons Context Role 1 Celebrity Celebrity Product Product Consumer Role 2 Role 3 Meaning Movement andthe Endorsement Process

  26. Message Factors • Message Structure • Central vs. Peripheral cues • Order of presentation • Conclusion drawing • Message sidedness • Refutation • Verbal versus visual

  27. The Elaboration Likelihood Model Exposure to marketing message High involvement with product, message or decision Low involvement with product, message or decision Strong attention focused on central, product-related features and factual information Limited attention focused on peripheral, nonproduct features and feelings Conscious thoughts about product attributes and use outcomes; high elaboration Low or nonconscious information processing; little or no elaboration Enduring attitude change Ad Ab Intentions Attitude change through affective route. It is not enduring.

  28. Message Recall and Presentation Order Recall Beginning Middle End

  29. Message Factors • Message Appeals • Comparative • Fear appeals • Humor

  30. Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance Facilitating effects Resultant nonmonotonic curve Acceptance Level of fear Rejection Inhibiting effects

  31. Use of Humor • Aids attention and awareness • May harm complex copy recall and comprehension • May aid name and simple copy registration • May aid retention, if humor related to brand benefits • Effects on persuasion • May aid persuasion to switch brands • Creates positive mood, enhancing persuasion • Does not aid source credibility • Is not effective in bringing about action, sales

  32. Channel Factors • Alternative mass media • Context and environment • Clutter • Personal vs. non-personal media

  33. Do they have what it takes…? • Jenny Craig ad • 007 Trailer • Arizona Dept of Health ad • EDS ad • Pepsi ad • Allegra ad