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CLASSIFYING CHEMICAL REACTIONS. FIVE BASIC WAYS TO CLASSIFY CHEMICAL REACTIONS:. Synthesis Decomposition Single-Replacement Double-Replacement Combustion. Synthesis Reactions:. Generic Reaction X + Y-->XY

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five basic ways to classify chemical reactions
FIVE BASIC WAYS TO CLASSIFY CHEMICAL REACTIONS:
  • Synthesis
  • Decomposition
  • Single-Replacement
  • Double-Replacement
  • Combustion
synthesis reactions
Synthesis Reactions:
  • Generic Reaction
  • X + Y-->XY
  • Definition-In this equation, X and Y can be compounds or elements. The result XY is a compound.

Analogy- Like a marriage

2 Reactants and 1 Product

examples of real synthesis reactions
Examples of Real Synthesis Reactions:
  • 2Ba + O2 -->2BaO
  • 4Cu + O2 -->2Cu2O
  • 2Cu + O2 -->2CuO
  • 2H2 + O2 -->2H2O
  • C + O2 -->CO2
  • 2Na + Cl2 -->2NaCl2
decomposition reactions
Decomposition Reactions:
  • In a decomposition reaction, an compound is broken down into two simpler substances. The generic formula of a decomposition reaction is:
  • XY --> X + Y
  • Decomposition reactions are the opposite of synthesis reactions.

Analogy-Like divorce

1 Reactant and 2 Products

examples of real decomposition reactions
Examples of Real Decomposition Reactions:
  • 2HgO --> 2Hg + O2
  • 2H2O --> 2H2 + O2
  • CaCO3 --> CaO + CO2
  • Cu(OH)2 --> CuO + H2O
  • 2KClO3 --> 2KCl + 3O2H2SO4 --> SO3 + H2O
single replacement reactions
Single Replacement Reactions:
  • In this type of reaction, one element replaces a similar element in a compound.
  • A + XY --> AY + X
  • In this equation, A, X, and Y are the elements and XY, AY, and XA are the compounds.

Aggressive metal wins

1 free element + compound  compound + 1 free element

Like finding a new girl friend

slide8

Li Rb K Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb

Cu Ag PtAu

Metal Reactivity Chart

Most aggressive metal (woman) wins out

H

examples of single replacement reactions
Examples of Single Replacement Reactions:
  • 2Al + 3Fe(NO3)2 3Fe + 2Al(NO3)3
  • Zn + CuCl2
  • Mg + Pb(NO3)2 
  • Fe + Na3PO4
  • 2K + ZnCl2
examples of real single replacement reactions
Examples of Real Single Replacement Reactions:
  • 2Al + 3Fe(NO3)2 3Fe + 2Al(NO3)3
  • Zn + CuCl2 Cu + ZnCl2
  • Mg + Pb(NO3)2  Pb + Mg(NO3)2
  • Fe + Na3PO4 N.R.
  • 2K + ZnCl2 2 KCl + Zn
  • Cl2 + 2KBr  2KCl + Br2
double replacement reactions
Double-Replacement Reactions:
  • In a double-replacement reaction, the two compounds exchange places in a solution to form two new compounds. The general equation of a double-replacement reaction is:
  • AB + XY --> AY + XB

Like switching partners in square dancing

2 compounds  2 compounds

examples of real double replacement reactions
Examples of Real Double-Replacement Reactions:
  • Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI --> PbI2 + 2KNO3
  • FeS + 2HCl --> H2S + FeCl2
  • HCl + NaOH --> NaCl + H2O

“lets take turns dancing with these two beautiful ladies”

combustion reactions
Combustion Reactions:
  • When a substance combines with oxygen releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat, it is a combustion reaction.

Oxygen is needed to Burn things.

Generic

C + O2 CO2 + heat

examples of real combustion reactions
Examples of Real Combustion Reactions:
  • examples of combustion reactions
  • C3H8 + 5O2 --> 3CO2 + 4H2O + heat
  • 2CH4 + 4O2  2CO2 + 4H2O + heat
five basic ways to classify chemical reactions1
FIVE BASIC WAYS TO CLASSIFY CHEMICAL REACTIONS:
  • Synthesis 2 reactants1 product (like marriage)
  • Decomposition 1 reactant 2 products(like divorce)
  • Single-Replacement(most aggressive element wins)
  • Double-Replacement (switch partners)
  • Combustion=Burning (need oxygen to burn things)