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Chapter 14 Jobs & the Design of Work Nelson & Quick. Job Compared to Work. Job - a set of specified work and task activities that engage an individual in an organization Work - mental or physical activity that has productive results

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job compared to work
Job Compared to Work

Job -a set of specified work and task activities that engage an individual in an organization

Work -mental or physical activity that has productive results

Meaning of Work -the way a person interprets and understands the value of work as part of life f life

slide3

B - provides

personal

affect &

identity

A- value comes from

performance.

Accountability

is important

C- profit

accrues to

others by

work

performance

D- physical

activity

directed by

others and

performed

in a

workplace

E - generally

unpleasant

physically &

mentally

strenuous

activity

F- activity constrained

to specific time periods;

no positive affect through

its performance

Six

Patterns

of Work

slide4

Scientific

Management

Job

Characteristics

Traditional

Approaches to Job Design

Job

enlargement/

Job rotation

Job

Enrichment

slide5

Scientific

Management

Emphasizes work simplification(standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers)

+ Allows diverse groups

to work together

+ leads to production

efficiency

and higher profits

- Undervalues the human

capacity for thought and

ingenuity

slide6

Job

enlargement

Job rotation

Job enlargement -a method of job design that increases the number of activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work

Job rotation -a variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over time

Cross-training -a variation of job enlargement in which workers

are trained in different

specialized tasks or activities

slide7

Job

Enrichment

Job enrichment -designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them

Emphasis is on recognition, responsibility, and advancement opportunity

slide8

Job

Characteristics

Job Characteristics Model -

a framework for understanding

of core job dimensions with critical psychological states within a person

Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) -the survey instrument designed to measure the elements in the job Characteristics Model

five core job characteristics motivating potential score

Skill

variety

Task

identity

Task

significance

+

+

x[Autonomy] x [Feedback]

MPS =

3

Five Core Job Characteristics Motivating Potential Score
slide10

Job Characteristics Model

Personal and

work outcomes

Core job

dimensions

Critical

psychological

states

Employee

growth, need,

strength

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

Experienced work’s

meaningfulness

Experienced

responsibility

for work’s outcomes

Knowledge of work

activities’ results

High internal

work motivation

High quality

work performance

High satisfaction

with the work

Low absenteeism

and turnover

Autonomy

Feedback

J.R. Hackman and G.R. Oldham, “The Relationship Among Core Job Dimensions, the

Critical Psychological States, and On-the-Job Outcomes,” The Job Diagnostic Survey: An

Instrument for the Diagnosis of Jobs and the Evaluation of Job Redesign Projects, 1974.

Reprinted by permission of Greg R. Oldham.

social information processing sip model
Social Information Processing (SIP) model

SIP Model -a model that suggests that the important job factors depend in part on what others tell a person about the job

Four premises

1) people provide cues to understanding

the work environment

2) people help us judge our jobs

3) people tell us how they see our jobs

4) people’s positive & negative feedback

help us understand our feelings about our jobs

interdisciplinary approach

Mechanistic

Motivational

Biological

Perceptual/motor

Interdisciplinary Approach

No one approach can solve all performance

problems caused by poorly designed jobs

slide13

Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches

Decreased training time

Higher utilization levels

Lower error likelihood

Less mental overload

Lower stress levels

Higher job satisfaction

Higher motivation

Greater job involvement

Higher job performance

Lower absenteeism

Mechanistic

Approach

Motivational

Approach

Lower job satisfaction

Lower motivation

Higher absenteeism

Increased training time

Lower personnel utilization

Greater chance of errors

Greater chance of mental

overload and stress

+

+

-

-

slide14

Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches

Less physical effort

Less physical fatigue

Fewer health complaints

Fewer medical incidents

Lower absenteeism

Higher job satisfaction

High job satisfaction

Higher motivation

Greater job involvement

Higher job performance

Lower absenteeism

Biological

Approach

Perceptual Motor

Approach

Higher financial costs

because of changes

in equipment or

job environment

Lower job satisfaction

Lower motivation

+

+

-

-

international perspectives on the design of work
International Perspectives on the Design of Work

The Japanese Approach

  • Emphasizes strategic level
  • Encourages collective and cooperative working arrangements
  • Emphasizes lean production
international perspectives on the design of work16
International Perspectives on the Design of Work

The German Approach

  • Technocentric -Placing technology and engineering at the center of job design decisions (traditional German Approach)
  • Anthropocentric -Placing human considerations at the center of job design decisions (more recent German approach)
international perspectives on the design of work17
International Perspectives on the Design of Work

The Scandinavian Approach

  • encourages high degrees of worker control
  • encourages good social support systems for workers
slide18

Scientific approaches

of labor sciences

Levels of

evaluation

of human

work

Practicability

Endurability

Acceptability

Worker

Satisfaction

Problem areas &

assignment to disciplines

Technical, anthropo-metric, & psychophysical

problems

Technical, physiological, & medical problems

Economical &

sociological

problems

Sociopsychological &

economic problems

View

from

natural

science

Primarily

oriented

to

individuals

Primarily

oriented

to

groups

View

from

cultural

studies

H. Luczak, “’Good Work’ Design: An Ergonomic, Industrial Engineering Perspective,” in J.C. Quick,

L.R. Murphy, and J. J. Hurrell, eds. Stress and Well-Being at Work (Washington, D.C.): American

Psychological Association. Repreinted by permission.

work design and well being to increase control in work organizations
Work Design and Well-Being:To increase control in work organizations
  • Give workers the opportunity to control aspects of work & workplace
  • Design machines and tasks with optimal response times and/or ranges
  • Implement performance-monitoring systems as source of worker feedback
work design and well being to reduce uncertainty
Work Design and Well-Being:To reduce uncertainty
  • Provide employees with timely and complete work information needed
  • Make clear and unambiguous work assignments
  • Improve communication at shift change time
  • Increase employee access to information sources
work design and well being to manage conflict
Work Design and Well-Being:To manage conflict
  • Use participative decision making to reduce conflict
  • Use supportive supervisory styles to resolve conflict
  • Provide sufficient resource availability to meet work demands, thus preventing conflict
emerging issues in design of work
Emerging Issues in Design of Work

Telecommuting -employees work at home or in other locations geographically separate from their company’s main location

Alternative work patterns

  • Job sharing - an alternative work pattern in which there is more than one person occupying a single job
  • Flextime - an alternative work pattern through which employees can set their own daily work schedules
emerging issues in design of work23
Emerging Issues in Design of Work
  • Technology at work
    • Virtual office - a mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and services
    • Technostress - the stress cause by new and advancing technologies in the workplace
  • Task revision - the modification of incorrectly specified roles or jobs
  • Skill development
slide24

Performance Consequences of Role Behaviors

Role

Characteristics

Standard

Role

Behavior

Extra-role

Behavior

Counter-role

Behavior

Correctly Specified Role

Ordinary good

performance

Excellent performance

(organizational

citizenship and prosocial behavior)

Poor performance

(deviance, dissent, and

grievance)

Incorrectly Specified

Role

Poor performance

Very Poor

performance

(bureaucratic zeal)

Excellent performance

(task revision and

redirection, role

innovation)

Counter-role behavior -deviant behavior in either a correctly or incorrectly defined job or role

Republished with permission of Academy of Management, PO Box 3020, Briar Cliff Manor, NY 10510-8020. “Task Revision:

A Neglected Form of Work Performance,” (Table), R. M. Straw & R. D. Boettger, Academy of Management Journal, 1990, Vol. 33.

Reproduced by permission of the publisher via Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.