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airmanship

Airmanship

This presentation provides an overview of Airmanship in aviation. It is intended to enhance the reader's understanding, but it shall not supersede the applicable regulations or airline's operational documentation. Should there be any discrepancy between this presentation and an airline’s AFM /(M)MEL/FCOM/QRH/FCTM, the latter shall prevail at all times.

introduction
Introduction

This visual guide defines airmanship and illustrates its importance to safe flight operations. Its objective is to reinforce the importance of airmanship as the basis of safe flight operations. The material may be used for self-study or as part of a formal training presentation. The speaker’s notes provide additional information.

contents
Contents
  • Airmanship Defined
  • The “Building” of Airmanship
  • Violations
  • Summary
airmanship defined
Airmanship Defined

Airmanship is the consistent use of good judgment and

well-developed skills to accomplish flight objectives.

  • The consistency required of good airmanship is:
    • Founded on a cornerstone of uncompromising flight discipline
    • Developed through systematic skill acquisition and proficiency
  • A high state of situational awareness completes the airmanship picture and is obtained through knowledge of one’s self, aircraft, environment, team and risk.

(Kern, 1996)

consequences of poor airmanship
Consequences of Poor Airmanship
  • Accidents and incidents

Poor airmanship is a causal factor in almost all of the 70 percent of accidents that are attributed to human factors

  • Operational weaknesses and inefficiencies

Poor airmanship is responsible for operational weaknesses and inefficiencies that lead to increased safety risk, poor performance and wasted money

slide6

Judgment

Situational Awareness

Knowledge

Self

Aircraft

Risk

Team

Environment

Mission

Proficiency

Skills

Discipline

The “Building” of Airmanship

  • Judgment —All of the elements of airmanship support good judgment and decision making, just as all of the structural elements of a building support its roof.
  • Knowledge enables situational awareness, but, like judgment, it is also a trait that must be developed.
  • In-depth knowledge of many subjects will support the thinking processes of Airmanship.
  • Airmanship is founded on skills and proficiency; it includes both technical and non-technical subjects.
  • Discipline is the bedrock of airmanship; it is the ability and willpower to fly safely.
discipline
Discipline

Discipline is:

  • Behavior in accord with rules of conduct
  • Behavior and order maintained by training and control
  • An individual’s personal commitment to comply with rules and procedures
  • The willpower and ability to operate safely

The exercise of discipline requires:

  • Not accepting that rules must be broken to accomplish a job effectively
  • Rejecting opportunities for shortcuts or doing things better
  • Resisting temptation to break rules to impress others
  • Control of personal attitudes and biases
skills
Skills

Skills are abilities that are learned, usually through training, to

achieve a desired outcome. Two basic classifications of skills are:

  • Perceptual-motor skills, whichinvolve an interaction between a perception and a voluntary movement. Perceptual-motor skills are:
    • Taught during initial and recurrent training
    • Required to fly aircraft in normal and emergency situations
  • Cognitive skills, which involve mental processes such as comprehension, judgment, memory and reasoning. Cognitive skills are:
    • More complex than perceptual-motor skills
    • Related to learning and recall
    • Involved in gaining and maintaining situational awareness and in decision making
    • Used when speaking, listening and understanding
hierarchy of skills
Hierarchy of Skills
  • Precision
    • Precise technical and non-technical skills result from personal endeavor
  • Efficient
    • An aircraft commander controls the aircraft and leads a team
  • Effective
    • Broader, non-technical skills and experience give efficient operation
  • Safe
    • Continuing training, experience and improving airmanship will enable you to operate effectively as a crewmember
  • Unskilled
    • Basic training provides only those skills necessary to be safe

“The most skillful pilot had the most experience."

slide10

Proficiency

Proficiency refers to competence in a specific area. Generally speaking,

research has shown that it takes practice four hours a day for 10 years for a person to become an “expert” in a particular domain. With this in mind, it is essential that pilots do the following to become proficient at flying:

  • Practice flying at every opportunity
  • Practice a variety of flying scenarios (e.g., nonprecision approaches, hand flying, etc.)
  • Create meaningful situations that will expand your experience base (e.g., fly new routes, learn a new aircraft, obtain an additional rating)
  • Practice often and practice consistently, so that skills become automatic

It is important to note that if a pilot transitions to a new aircraft, he/she may

have to learn new skills or relearn old skills in the context of the new

aircraft.

knowledge
Knowledge

Pilots must possess comprehensive knowledge about the aircraft, nature

of the flight, possible abnormal and emergency conditions, their own

qualities and the qualities of their team members. Pilots must have a

confident understanding of:

  • Aircraft
    • Procedures, techniques, limitations
  • Self
    • Physical fitness and flying proficiency
    • Sources of human error, methods of error detection, techniques for reducing the effects of errors
  • Team
    • Capabilities and limitations of crew, ground staff, engineering and ATC
    • Common understanding of aircraft characteristics and operating procedures
  • Environment
    • Weather and terrain
    • Organizational, political, regulatory and commercial environments
  • Risks
    • Identification and assessment
    • Organizational standards designed to reduce risks
  • Mission Statement
    • Corporate culture, philosophy and safety policies
    • Organization’s safety management system
situational awareness
Situational Awareness

Situational awareness is knowing where you are, what is going on, where

you are going and what is likely to come next. It develops when you have a

mental picture based on accurate data. Situational awareness is a closed-loop process in which a pilot continuously seeks more or better information to gain and maintain it.

  • Three processes in gaining and maintaining situational awareness:
    • Gather information through basic senses (vision, hearing, balance, smell, touch)
    • Integrate and interpret (i.e., comprehend) sensory information
    • Use information to project plans and actions into future
  • Pitfalls in the development of situational awareness:
    • The senses can be fooled in some situations (e.g., illusions)
    • Complete and reliable information may not be accessible, especially in situations you have not encountered before
    • Information systems are not always reliable
    • Incorrect expectations
    • Distractions
    • Extremely high (emergency) or extremely low workload (boredom)
    • Overconfidence and familiarity with a situation that lead to failure to accomplish and repeat the three processes
judgment
Judgment

Judgment is the process that leads to a decision. Judgment is supported

by all the other elements of airmanship. Similar to judgment,

aeronautical decision making (ADM) is a systematic approach to the mental

processes used by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.

  • Good pilot judgment and ADM require the ability and motivation to:

• Discover and establish the relevance of all available information relating to problems of flight

• Diagnose problems

• Specify alternative courses of action

• Assess the risk associated with each alternative

• Choose and execute a suitable course of action within the available time frame. (Jensen, 1995)

Judgment always involves a problem or choice, an unknownelement and usually a time constraint and stress.

airmanship priorities
Airmanship Priorities

Good airmanship based on sound judgment involves the

following order of priorities:

  • Fly the aircraft —Check attitude, speed, altitude, instruments and automation
  • Navigate —Know where the aircraft is and where it is going
  • Communicate —Discuss and review the issues, share tasks, back up each other
  • Manage —Take follow-up action and use appropriate levels of automation
  • Monitor —Check to see what has changed and take control when unexpected events occurThese are the “Golden Rules” of flying.
slide15

Airmanship Tips 1

  • Be alert and ready for the unexpected
  • Gather information before deciding
  • Challenge and validate information
  • Consult
  • Evaluate consequences
  • Ensure mutual backup and cross-check
  • Check results of actions
  • Be prepared to reject any constraint that would decrease situation control
slide16

Airmanship Tips 2

  • Be alert and prepared for typical flight-phase-related emergencies
  • Consider trajectory as priority no.1 at all times
  • Adhere to published procedures, when available
  • Never leave a situation unresolved (ambiguity, doubt, disagreement, alert or cockpit effect)
  • Prioritize tasks as a function of prevailing condition
  • Keep all options open and be ready to change initial plans
slide17

Airmanship Tips 3

  • Stay ahead of the aircraft at all times
  • Share experience and lessons learned

and -— last but not least —

  • Be aware, to be mentally prepared.
summary
Summary

Airmanship is:

  • Founded on discipline (self, team, corporate)
  • Continuously striving for self-improvement and optimal personal performance

Airmanship requires:

  • A wide range of perceptual-motor skills
  • A wide range of cognitive skills
  • A wide range of knowledge (self, aircraft, environment, risk)
  • Appropriate attitudes

Airmanship can be developed through training

and refined through practice and experience.

references links
References — Links
  • “Redefining Airmanship,” Tony Kern, 1996, ISBN 0070342849
  • ‘Flight Safety’ magazine, Australia CASA

http://www.casa.gov.au/avreg/fsa/index.htm

  • ‘Airmanship, Measuring up’, ‘Vector’ magazine, CAA New Zealand, http://www.caa.govt.nz/Safety Information, Publications, ‘Vector’
  • ‘Airmanship and Flight Discipline,’ Tony Hayes, Brisbane Valley Leisure Aviation Centrehttp://www.auf.asn.au/students/Airmanship.html
  • Jensen, R.S. (1995) “Pilot Judgement and Crew Resource Management.” Avebury Aviation
information
Information
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