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A View of Institutional Relationships for Transport Sector Data: The Experience of the Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia . Cornie Huizenga 1 , Lee Schipper 2 , Herbert Fabian 1 1 Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities, 2 EMBARQ.

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A View of Institutional Relationships for Transport Sector Data: The Experience of the Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia

Cornie Huizenga1, Lee Schipper2, Herbert Fabian11Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities, 2EMBARQ

April 2005 Colombo, Sri Lanka


Overview of Presentation

  • What is CAI-Asia?
  • Background on PSUTA
  • Institutional issues related to sustainable transport indicators with experiences from three mid-size Asian cities

CAI-Asia Goals

The Clean Air Initiative promotes and demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian Cities through sharing experiences and building partnerships

  • Sharing knowledge and experiences on air quality management
  • Capacity building
  • Improving policy and regulatory frameworks at the regional level
  • Assisting cities in formulating and implementing integrated air quality management systems
  • Piloting projects to encourage innovation

“Creating an Air Quality Management Community in Asia”


CAI-Asia Membership



Chiang Mai,Thailand




Colombo,Sri Lanka

Dhaka, Bangladesh


Haiphong, Viet Nam


Hanoi,Viet Nam


Ho Chi Minh City,Viet Nam

Hyderabad, India



Lahore, Pakistan


Metro Manila, Philippines

Mumbai, India


Phnom Penh,Cambodia

Pune, India

Singapore, (NEA)



Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia



Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, India

Australia Department of Environment and Heritage

Balochistan EPA, Pakistan

Central Pollution Control Board, India

Department of Environment, Bangladesh

Department of Forests, Ecology and Env’t, Karnataka State, India

Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines

Department of Energy, Philippines

Department of Transportation and Communications, Philippines

Dhaka Transport Coordination Board, Bangladesh

Environmental Management Bureau,Ministry of Environment, Japan

Environment Protection Department, Hong Kong, SAR

Environmental Protection Agency Karachi, Pakistan

Ministry of Environment, Cambodia

Ministry of Environment, Indonesia

Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Cambodia

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, India

Pollution Control Department, Thailand

State Environmental Protection Administration (PRC focal point)

Viet Nam Register, Viet Nam

  • 54 NGOs and Academic Institutions in the Region


Asian Development Bank

German Agency for Technical


The William and Flora Hewlett


The World Conservation Union

United States-Asia

Environmental Partnership


World Bank


Ford Motor Co. Shell

Clean Diesel Tech. Inc.


AVL Corning Johnson DEKRA ACFA Matthey

Cerulean IPIECA



Part 2

The Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia (PSUTA)



Background -SIDA

  • Swedish International Development Authority asked ADB to carry out study of sustainable urban transport in Asian Cities

Background -ADB

  • ADB has been a leading actor in developing and funding transport projects in Asia
  • ADB co-founded and supports the city-based Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities

Background -EMBARQ

  • Founded by a grant from the Shell Foundation to World Resources Institute 2002
  • Leading NGO in developing and carrying out sustainable transport projects (Mexico City, Shanghai)
  • Invited by ADB (as partner) to carry out this project


  • Scope
    • Transport and environment in Asian cities, focusing on strengthening sustainability of low-emissions transport and mobility in Asian cities..
    • Work with Pune (India), Xi’an (China), and Hanoi (Vietnam) to engage key stakeholders and leaders
  • Goal
    • Contribute towards enhancing environmental sustainability of transport and mobility in Asian cities through developing and applying quantitative measures of sustainability and progress towards sustainability in a number of selected cities.
  • Purpose
    • Develop and discuss a conceptual approach of city-based sustainable transport planning relevant for Asia, by stimulating authorities to act!

Xian, China

Hanoi, Vietnam

Pune, India

how does psuta see the use of indicators
How does PSUTA see the use of indicators?

1. PSUTA looks for indicators which help to capture environmental, social and economic dimension of urban transport

2. PSUTA builds pyramids of data into indicators

3. Indicators are a tool to start up and maintain a stakeholder process on sustainable transport planning

4. In PSUTA indicator development is a bottom-up process depending on local capacity and generating additional local capacity for indicators development


What are Indicators of Sustainable Transportation?

  • Indicators provide decision-makers with diagnosis of problems, quantification of cures, prognoses, evaluation,
  • Indicators portray compress large amounts of information into key trends in transport and environment, the state of the system, and the directions it is headed
  • Some indicators, such as air pollution indices, can be given every day or even every hour; others are updated every few years
  • Indicators are used for descriptions, models, baseline measurement, scenario development, and evaluation of past measures
  • Indicators show what authorities can know and can do
  • Indicators give decision makers basis for illustrating achievements

Indicators Help Authorities to make Good Policy Choices and Monitoring those Choices


Sustainable Transport: Indicators for Pillars and the Roof

Governance Sustainability

Nature of Laws; enforcement mechanisms

Flows of public and private resources into sustainable transport

Economic sustainability

– innovation and efficiency

  • Transport costs in national accounts;
  • Fares and fuel costs
  • Financial balance of private and public transport firms
  • Institutional structure of transport industry
  • Safety and Environmental sustainability
  • - health of future citizens
    • Ambient Air Quality
    • Emissions factors
    • Public Health records on air pollution related disease
    • Accident and safety data

Social sustainability – equity

  • Travel times and other measures of access, by gender, social class, location of housing
  • Crime and incidents in transit
  • Costs of travel; budget shares, etc.

Transport system: geographical area, participants, modal split, VKT, trip distribution, O-D


What is the Transportation System?

  • People and Goods on the Move
    • Access to jobs, shopping, civic activities, free time, and each other
    • Motion from origin to assembly to use to disposal
    • Impacts of people – accidents, pollution, congestion – part of system
  • A Set of Rules and Laws governing private and public transport
  • A Geographical Region (including Atmosphere)
    • Definitions and boundaries often by default from physical constraints
    • Boundaries sometimes administrative with little regard for motion
    • Increasingly boundary of PSUTA work defined by local air basin
  • Fixed Infrastructure and Vehicles (motorized, non motorized and animals)
    • Typically public ownership of large fixed structures (stations, networks)
    • Mixed public, private company, private individual ownership of means of conveyance for hire (from two and three – wheelers to large busses)
    • Private vehicles that dominate roads and pollution but rarely actual travel

Urban Transportation Systems are more than the roads, bridges and rails

sustainable transport indicators for stakeholders
Sustainable Transport: Indicators for Stakeholders

6) Marketing and Communicating –Stakeholders need to maintain an honest and transparent presence based on science to give credibility to communications

1) Diagnosis- Most externalities and issues can be quantified, but the valuation of the externalities depends on individual, group, or political perspective; requires stakeholder involvement.


2) Design and Prognosis– Will have usual uncertainties associated with defining baselines, etc. Stakeholders agree on acceptable uncertainties.

5) Rebalancing – Sensitive issue of what can be put in place if the prognosis looks unachievable or solution is falling short

Making Transport more


3) Implementing the Cure- Depends on costs, stream/timing of benefits, ability of different groups to afford consequences, adapt, etc. requires stakeholder involvement

4) Evaluation– Depends on defining baselines, putting in agreed methods for evaluating along the way. Requires stakeholder involvement


What is PSUTA trying to do in the three cities?

1) Diagnosis- Most externalities and issues can be quantified, but the valuation of the externalities depends on individual, group, or political perspective; requires stakeholder involvement.

  • Agree on a set of key indicators of sustainable urban transport that can guide policy planning
  • Map the gap of missing information and indicators
  • Map how to close the gap
  • Recommendations, including lessons learned from the development of indicators

2) Design and Prognosis– Will have usual uncertainties associated with defining baselines, etc. Stakeholders agree on acceptable uncertainties.


Indicators of Sustainable Transport: Major externalities

  • Congestion/Access:
  • Vision of minimal time lost.
  • Policy
  • Time lost in traffic;
  • Economic costs of congestion rel. to GDP;
  • Proximity to rapid transport nodes
  • Modal splits by trips and distances
  • Predictive
  • Road hierarchy
  • Non-road transport infrastructure (rail, etc.)
  • Lane or road-km per vehicle and per of city space
  • Number of light duty vehicles


“Zero fatality vision”


  • Deaths or accidents per vehicle
  • Deaths or accidents per km driven or traveled
  • Accident Costs/GDP


  • Engineering (seatbelts, safety devices, road barriers, etc)
  • Education (drier ed, drunken driving)
  • Enforcement (drunken driving, safety inspections;speed and other violations)

Pollution/Air quality:

Vision of no days exceeding health norms


  • Health risk/morbidity from pollution /exposure
  • Concentrations in air of mobile source pollution
  • Health costs/GDP
  • Emissions/km from vehicles
  • Current/proposed standards and policies


  • Emissions coefficients and driving cycles
  • Number of vehicles and distance/vehicle
  • Verification
  • Socio-demographic and socio-economic variables

Indicator Pyramids: Hierarchy of What and Who

High-Level Indicators

The Public,

Policy makers

Experts, NGOs,

Policy advisors

Technical Level



Survey experts,

Detailed Data

Courtesy of Henrik Gudmunsson, DMU

example of indicator pyramid total emissions of given kind co 2 nox
Example of Indicator Pyramid: Total Emissions of Given Kind (CO2, NOx, …)

Danger Signal to the Mayor?


Improved fuel

Retrofit of vehicles

I/M and elimination of smokers

Health Impact

Ambient air analysis

Pollutant by type and vehicle

Inputs to diagnosis


for each vehicle type, fuel

Measure, borrow, or guess each parameter?

Detailed Data: survey of cars, driving, fuel use and emissions coefficients, model of car fleet by vintage, type, etc



Cost of indicator



Existing 33 Improved 33 Sufficient for Action 33 Full Knowledge

INDICATORS: Accuracy..but at a cost


Steps to More Accurate Inventories


Vehicles by type, fuel, age from reg. Distance/vehicle from “Lents-like” survey*

Emissions Coefficients from other city, or limited testing (A dozen 3rd World Cities)



Vehicles by type, fuel from reg. data

Assumed distance/vehicle

“Default” emissions coefficients

(Much of 3rd World)

Vehicles by type, fuel,,age, tech from large vehicle use survey

Distance/vehicle by type, fuel, age from vehicle-use survey

“Emissions coefficients from large-scale measurement survey

(Some OECD cities – London?)


ExistingImproved, maybe OK? Sufficient for Action

*Lents (UC Riverside) survey, or insurance or police data using odometers readings from collisions, infractions


Part 2

Institutional Issues related to using Sustainable Urban Transport Indicators for Planning

who uses which indicators
Who Uses Which Indicators?







The Mayor

or Minister

Weightings for

policy purposes


(Formula taking data

Into indicators)

Policy Advisors

Formula taking data into indicators


Laws and Norms


Demographic Drivers

“The Depths”

Raw data, measurement

survey results, for specialists



owners of data indicators numerators and denominators
“Owners” of Data/IndicatorsNumerators and Denominators
  • Identify the owners and ownership of information
  • Analyze the relationships between owners of information
  • Relationship therapy to improve coordination and cooperation among owners of information
  • Develop common interests for collecting same data,
  • Coordinate consistency of different data
  • Provide integrated indicator data-base structure to “house” the information together

Cycle-borne freight on a main street in Xi’an, China

numerators and denominators difficulties encountered 1
Numerators and Denominators: Difficulties encountered (1)

1. Key transport and environment data usually have environment in numerator and transport in denominator

  • Chinese Cities - data belong to distinct spheres and negotiation or even purchase required to combine data officially
  • Pune - State of Environment Publication already contained rich set of indicators using both transport and environment data
  • Related problem - Bi- and multi- lateral support projects need data inconsistent with each other, hence no continuity in collection
numerators and denominators difficulties encountered 2
Numerators and Denominators: Difficulties encountered (2)

2. Agencies do not share data

  • Higher level agencies lack power to coordinate - PSUTA signed MoU with Env. Agency in Hanoi and gave sub-grant to transport agency to do work, outputs welcomed
  • Various stations measuring ambient air quality in Hanoi belong to different institutes, sponsored by different national or bilateral groups
  • Agencies and academics require small (but reasonable) honoraria amongst themselves to exchange data

3. Indicators define new disciplines today's senior experts were not taught

  • Hanoi and Xian had little experience measuring emissions and emissions factors in conjunction with policy
  • Hanoi and Xian have only recently started to deal with motorized transport in the context of mobility and surveys!
key issues importance of city engagement in the policy process
Key Issues: Importance of City Engagement in the policy process
  • Pune - engaged local transport leaders, key city transport officials, and key environment leaders
  • Xian - engaged key transport leader whose associates want to develop a full scale emissions inventory as a step towards vehicle emissions remediation
  • Hanoi - engaged the top local clean air official who had responsibility for transport; the lack of baseline information poses a problem

PSUTA actively solicited the involvement of the local government for the project

bus accident on a bridge in Pune, India

key issues institutional structures
Key Issues: Institutional structures
  • Pune - Convinced the Transport experts to include outside environmental/fuels experts in the team
  • Xian - Brought the Environmental Institute and Construction Commission together through a local university to develop a joint proposal for emission measurements and remediation
  • Hanoi - Brought the transport and clean air experts to work together and exchange information for various purposes

PSUTA performed ‘relationship therapies’

Parked mopeds on a sidewalk in Hanoi, Vietnam blocking passage for pedestrians

how do the cities want to move forward
How do the cities want to move forward?
  • AT Least Two PSUTA Cities want to launch plans where indicators play a role in diagnosis, choice of cures, etc…
  • To fill the indicator gaps Hanoi and Xian have started to acknowledge need for better understanding of their growing emissions problems and how each vehicle type contributes to the problem
  • To solve the problems
    • Hanoi stakeholders and bi-laterals/multi laterals catalyzed by PSUTA to work systematically to reduce vehicle emissions
    • Xian – Government solidly lobbying various other projects for funds and capability to measure emissions
    • EMBARQ assisting as outside facilitator and bridge to donor agencies

Sustainable Urban Transport Indicators

The final word ……

  • Local political will and money
    • Collection and maintenance costs – assure continuity
    • Ability to overcome data ownership feuds
    • Willingness to harmonize with efforts elsewhere
  • “How To” - the actual methodology
    • Develop local expertise
    • Survey available data
    • Develop formulae and routines data-> indicators
  • Why and what matters – Couple to policy-making
    • Introduce indicators and their message to policy makers
    • Develop strategic planning and scenarios
    • Diagnose, choose, prognose, implement evaluate, rebalance, market