Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
A Gender Analysis on Food Security Statistics from National Household Income and Expenditures Surveys (NHIES) by Seeva RAMASAWMY (FAO Statistics Division)
FOOD SECURITY • A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. • Food Availability ; Food Access and Food Utilization at the household level.
PURPOSE • Provides analysis of gender dynamics relating to food insecurity based on food security statistics derived from the NHIES • Inputs for planning geared toward promoting gender equality, equity and female empowerment within a framework of national development • Important to understand gender dynamics of food security in developing countries (given trends of increasing female headship—and management—of rural agricultural households) • Allow for effective monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes
OUTLINE • 1. Indicators of Food Insecurity • 2. Food Security Statistics Module Software • 3. Selected Food Insecurity Indicators from Philippines FIES 2003 • 4. Conclusion
MDG Hunger Indicator 1.9: Reduce the proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (MDER) by half by 2015. World Food Summit Target: Reduce the number of undernourished people by half by 2015. INDICATORS OF FOOD INSECURITY
Food Deprivation (MDG & WFS hunger indicators) Minimum food needs Critical food poverty Intensity of food inadequacy/Depth of hunger Food consumption (Quantity, Monetary & Nutrient values) Food access Diet composition, quality and diversity Micronutrient analysis (Protein quality and Amino acids) ASSESSING FOOD INSECURITY SITUATION USING A SET OF FOOD SECURITY INDICATORS
Who are the food insecure population groups? Where are these food insecure population groups located? Where do households acquire their food? How do households acquire their food? How food is distributed in the population? What type of diet do households consume? What are the incomes, where do individuals/households get their incomes and how income is distributed among the households? ASSESSING FOOD INSECURITY BY ANSWERING KEY QUESTIONS
Responsible for the Global Monitoring of MDG Hunger Indicator (1.9) State of Food Insecurity in the World – SOFI 2008 Technical Assistance at Country level – 80 countries Use of Food Security Statistics Module - (FSSM) Process - Analyse – Report Micronutrient Analysis - Protein Quality and Amino Acids – Quality of Diet FOA STATISTICS METHODOLOGICAL ANALYTICAL TOOL
Derive Food Security Indicators at National and Sub National levels from the food data available from HBS. Dissemination – Country Food Insecurity Report -Country NSO Website -FAO Food Security Website FOA STATISTICS METHODOLOGICAL ANALYTICAL TOOL
Sub National levels (Functional Groups) Geographical – Urban/Rural, Regions, Provinces Demographic – GENDER, Household Size, Age of head of HH, - Socio-Economic – Education, Marital/Activity Status, Economic Activity, Occupation, Income, etc. FOA STATISTICS METHODOLOGICAL ANALYTICAL TOOL
PHILIPPINES GENDER FOOD SECURITY STATISTICS Dietary energy consumption by Gender and Population Groups
PHILIPPINES GENDER FOOD SECURITY STATISTICS Dietary energy consumption by Gender & Regions
PHILIPPINES GENDER FOOD SECURITY STATISTICS Food deprivation proportions are higher for male-headed households than for female-headed households (National levels & Population Groups)
PHILIPPINES GENDER FOOD SECURITY STATISTICS Food deprivation are higher for male-headed households in all regions.
PHILIPPINES GENDER FOOD SECURITY STATISTICS Diet Composition
PHILIPPINES GENDER FOOD SECURITY STATISTICS 1.Cost of balanced MDER (Minimum Dietary Energy Requirement) • Female-headed families had a higher cost of daily diet 2. Income • Female-headed families had a lower daily per person income/consumption
Findings on share of food in total consumption Filipino female-headed families spent on average larger share of their total consumption on food; less money left for buying other goods than food. Female-headed families in better position than male-headed families that had less money to buy any kind of goods, including food. Findings on Inequality in access to food CV of food dietary energy consumption was 29.4 percent for both female and male-headed families; indicates no difference between men and women in inequality in access to food. PHILIPPINES GENDER FOOD SECURITY STATISTICS
NHIES in countries are major sources of information for deriving gender sensitive food security statistics and indicators NHIES allows the effective monitoring and evaluation of project, policies, programmes. NHIES is useful to analyze gender dynamics into urban-rural areas and provide important details to food insecurity analysis at national and sub-national levels CONCLUSIONS