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A Brief History of the Computer

A Brief History of the Computer

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A Brief History of the Computer

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  1. A Brief History of the Computer With apologies to Steven Hawking

  2. Counting

  3. Primative Calculators

  4. The Abbacus

  5. Al’Khowarizmi and the algorithm • 12th Century Tashkent Cleric • Developed the concept of a written process for doing something • Published a book on the process of algorithms • The basis of software

  6. Philosopher Forefathers of Modern Computing 1600-1700 • Von Leibniz developed binary arithmetic and a hand cranked calculator. • Calculator was able to add, subtract, multiply and divide. • Blaise Pascal –developed the Pascaline. • Desk top calculator worked lik an odometer.

  7. Blaise Pascal

  8. Charles BabbageThe Next Leap Forward1800’s

  9. Charles Babbage Difference Engine

  10. Lady Ada Byron - programmer • Countess of Lovelace, daughter of Lord Byron. • One of the first women mathematicians in England • Documented Babbage’s work. • Wrote am account of the difference engine.

  11. The Process of MechanizationJacquards Loom • Started the age of automation • Used punch cards to direct the rods on the loom to create patterns. • Revolt against the introduction of looms – Ned Ludd - 1816

  12. George Boole • Boolean Algebra • Used to establish inequalities: • symoblic use of <, or >, or <> • Used in computer switching • Modern use in library searches

  13. Herman Hollerith punch card tabulating machine 1890 Census

  14. Hollerith Tables and the Census Improved the speed of the census Reduced cost by $5 million Greater accuracy of data collected Hollerith – unemployed after the census

  15. The Mechanical Office1928 • Development of: • Small calculating-oriented machines desk calculators, cash registers • Business machine industry- supported by the government – punch card machines • Top four companies in 1928: • Remington Rand NCR (National Cash Register) • Burroughs IBM

  16. Konrad Zuse - First Calculator 1938

  17. The War Years 1939-1945Two Primary Uses • Artillery Tables • Hand calculation replaced by machine calculation • Department of the Navy • Cryptologist : • Cryptography The art or process of writing in or deciphering secret writing Bletchley House The Enigma Codes – U23

  18. The British Effort

  19. Alan Turing misunderstood genius 1936 • Published a paper “On Computable Numbers” • Turings machine - hypothetical computer that could perform any computation or logical operation a human could devise.

  20. Turings Heritage • Code breaking was Touring’s strength. • Colossus a computer to break the German enigma code - 100 Billion alternatives. • Ran at rate of 25,000 characters per second

  21. The United States Effort

  22. The II World War Years 1939 - 1945 • Calculate artillery tables. • Used to break codes like the Colossus. • Used to model future events - Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs. • Cmdr. Grace Hooper

  23. HARVARD MARK - 1, 1944

  24. The Mark I - a dinosaur • 51 feet long • 3,304 electro mechanical switches • Add or subtract 23 digit numbers in 3/10 of a second. • Instructions (software) loaded by paper tape. • The infamous “Bug”

  25. ENIAC - The Next Jump Forward - 1946 • 1st electronic digital computer • Operated with vacuum tubes rather electro-mechanical switches • 1000 times faster than Mark I • No program storage - wired into circuitry.

  26. The Advent of the Semiconductor - 1947 • Developed at Bell Labs by Shockley & Bardeen – Nobel Prize • Point Contact Transistor replaced power hungry, hot and short lived vacuum tubes

  27. EDVAC - Electronic Discreet Variable Automatic Computer 1951 • Data stored internally on a magnetic drum • Random access magnetic storage device • First stored program computer

  28. The 50’s the Era of Advances

  29. Technical Advances in the 60’s • John Mccarthy coins the term “Artificial Intelligence” • 1960 - Removable Disks appear • 1964 - BASIC - Beginners-all purpose Symbolic Instruction Language • Texas Instruments offers the first solid- state hand-held calculator • 1967 - 1st issue of Computerworld published

  30. The 1970’s - The Microprocessor Revolution • A single chip containing all the elements of a computer’s central processing unit. • Small, integrated, relatively cheap to manufacture.

  31. The Super Computers - 1972 • The Cray • Parallel processing power • Speed 100 million arithmetical functions per second • Sensitive to heat - cooled with liquid nitrogen • Very expensive

  32. The ALTAIR from a Voyage to Altair - Star Trek -1975

  33. The Birth of the Micro Computer 1975 • Jobs and Wozniac develop the Apple II • Commodore PET, programs stored on a cassette • Tandy-Radio Shack TRS-80 • 5 1/2 inch floppy disk becomes the standard for software

  34. Finally, The Computer as Man of the Year - 1982

  35. Revenge of the Nerds

  36. Where to next!!! • Technology is rapidly increasing • Techno-phobia – Y2K – what happened • The Internet and Cyber Space • Wearable computers • Smart cards • Shopping Bots • National Weather computer Click on the Crystal Ball for a link to future Technologies

  37. New Applications & Wearable Computers