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A Brief History of the Computer. With apologies to Steven Hawking. Counting. Primative Calculators. The Abbacus. Al’Khowarizmi and the algorithm. 12th Century Tashkent Cleric Developed the concept of a written process for doing something Published a book on the process of algorithms

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a brief history of the computer

A Brief History of the Computer

With apologies to

Steven Hawking

al khowarizmi and the algorithm
Al’Khowarizmi and the algorithm
  • 12th Century Tashkent Cleric
  • Developed the concept of a written process for doing something
  • Published a book on the process of algorithms
  • The basis of software
philosopher forefathers of modern computing 1600 1700
Philosopher Forefathers of Modern Computing 1600-1700
  • Von Leibniz developed binary arithmetic and a hand cranked calculator.
  • Calculator was able to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
  • Blaise Pascal –developed the Pascaline.
  • Desk top calculator worked lik an odometer.
lady ada byron programmer
Lady Ada Byron - programmer
  • Countess of Lovelace, daughter of Lord Byron.
  • One of the first women mathematicians in England
  • Documented Babbage’s work.
  • Wrote am account of the difference engine.
the process of mechanization jacquards loom
The Process of MechanizationJacquards Loom
  • Started the age of automation
  • Used punch cards to direct the rods on the loom to create patterns.
  • Revolt against the introduction of looms – Ned Ludd - 1816
george boole
George Boole
  • Boolean Algebra
  • Used to establish inequalities:
  • symoblic use of <, or >, or <>
  • Used in computer switching
  • Modern use in library searches
hollerith tables and the census
Hollerith Tables and the Census

Improved the speed of the census

Reduced cost by $5 million

Greater accuracy of data collected

Hollerith – unemployed after the census

the mechanical office 1928
The Mechanical Office1928
  • Development of:
    • Small calculating-oriented machines desk calculators, cash registers
    • Business machine industry- supported by the government – punch card machines
    • Top four companies in 1928:
      • Remington Rand NCR (National Cash Register)
      • Burroughs IBM
the war years 1939 1945 two primary uses
The War Years 1939-1945Two Primary Uses
  • Artillery Tables
    • Hand calculation replaced by machine calculation
    • Department of the Navy
  • Cryptologist :
    • Cryptography

The art or process of writing in or deciphering secret writing

Bletchley House

The Enigma Codes – U23

alan turing misunderstood genius 1936
Alan Turing misunderstood genius 1936
  • Published a paper “On Computable Numbers”
  • Turings machine - hypothetical computer that could perform any computation or logical operation a human could devise.
turings heritage
Turings Heritage
  • Code breaking was Touring’s strength.
  • Colossus a computer to break the German enigma code - 100 Billion alternatives.
  • Ran at rate of 25,000 characters per second
the ii world war years 1939 1945
The II World War Years 1939 - 1945
  • Calculate artillery tables.
  • Used to break codes like the Colossus.
  • Used to model future events - Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs.
  • Cmdr. Grace Hooper
the mark i a dinosaur
The Mark I - a dinosaur
  • 51 feet long
  • 3,304 electro mechanical switches
  • Add or subtract 23 digit numbers in 3/10 of a second.
  • Instructions (software) loaded by paper tape.
  • The infamous “Bug”
eniac the next jump forward 1946
ENIAC - The Next Jump Forward - 1946
  • 1st electronic digital computer
  • Operated with vacuum tubes rather electro-mechanical switches
  • 1000 times faster than Mark I
  • No program storage - wired into circuitry.
the advent of the semiconductor 1947
The Advent of the Semiconductor - 1947
  • Developed at Bell Labs by Shockley & Bardeen – Nobel Prize
  • Point Contact Transistor replaced power hungry, hot and short lived vacuum tubes
edvac electronic discreet variable automatic computer 1951
EDVAC - Electronic Discreet Variable Automatic Computer 1951
  • Data stored internally on a magnetic drum
  • Random access magnetic storage device
  • First stored program computer
technical advances in the 60 s
Technical Advances in the 60’s
  • John Mccarthy coins the term “Artificial Intelligence”
  • 1960 - Removable Disks appear
  • 1964 - BASIC - Beginners-all purpose Symbolic Instruction Language
  • Texas Instruments offers the first solid- state hand-held calculator
  • 1967 - 1st issue of Computerworld published
the 1970 s the microprocessor revolution
The 1970’s - The Microprocessor Revolution
  • A single chip containing all the elements of a computer’s central processing unit.
  • Small, integrated, relatively cheap to manufacture.
the super computers 1972
The Super Computers - 1972
  • The Cray
  • Parallel processing power
  • Speed 100 million arithmetical functions per second
  • Sensitive to heat - cooled with liquid nitrogen
  • Very expensive
the birth of the micro computer 1975
The Birth of the Micro Computer 1975
  • Jobs and Wozniac develop the Apple II
  • Commodore PET, programs stored on a cassette
  • Tandy-Radio Shack TRS-80
  • 5 1/2 inch floppy disk becomes the standard for software
where to next
Where to next!!!
  • Technology is rapidly increasing
  • Techno-phobia – Y2K – what happened
  • The Internet and Cyber Space
  • Wearable computers
  • Smart cards
  • Shopping Bots
  • National Weather computer

Click on the Crystal Ball for

a link to future Technologies