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The Possibilities of F air Trade : Towards a Taxonomy of Fairly Traded Clothing Organisations. Paper presented to the 13 th International Greening of Industry Network Conference 2006. Kellie Dalton & Pierre McDonagh. Business School. Research Area.
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The Possibilities of Fair Trade: Towards a Taxonomy of Fairly Traded Clothing Organisations Paper presented to the 13th International Greening of Industry Network Conference 2006 Kellie Dalton & Pierre McDonagh Business School
Research Area What constitutes the dynamic of a Fair Trade clothing organisation? We offer this taxonomy as a first step in answering this question
Business Ethics and Ethical Fashion • Roots of ecological accountability in the clothing industry • Oxymornons?? • Frameworks of CSR • Opportunities for alleviating the ecological crisis
Fashion & Apparel Sector • Towards a taxonomy of ethical/fairtradeclothingorganisations • Green management • Drumwrights (1994)Four Categories • Founders, Symbolism, Opportune, Restraint
FAIRTRADE Certified/ Organic Cotton/Alternative Textile/Chemical-Free Dyes/ Sweatshop Free Labour/Animal Cruelty Free/Renewable Energy/Recyclable Packaging/ Reinvestment back into communities/ minimised transport Drumwrights Categories: Symbolism Opportune Restraint Drumwrights Categories: Founders Fairtrade Certified Clothing Organisation Mainstream Clothing Organisation (M.C.O) Fig. 2 Taxonomy of Ethical/Fairtrade Clothing Organisations
Explanation of the Taxonomy • Animal Cruelty-Free • Recycled(second-hand clothing (including purchases on Ebay), charity shops, swap shops, vintage clothing and clothing made from recycled material) • Chemical-Free/Natural Dyes • ECO-Labels • Alternative Textiles/Sustainable Fabrics
Explanation of the Taxonomy • Organic Textiles • Sweatshop-Free Labour • Labour Standards • Ethical/Fair-Made/Fair trade (not certified) • Fairtrade Certified • Others
FAIRTRADE Certified/ Organic Cotton/Alternative Textile/Chemical-Free Dyes/ Sweatshop Free Labour/Animal Cruelty Free/Renewable Energy/Recyclable Packaging/ Reinvestment back into communities/ minimised transport LABOUR STANDARDS: Ethical Trade Initiative (ETI) SA8000 Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production (WRAP) Fair Labour Association (FLA) SEDEX UN Global Compact ILO Standard Organic Certification: Cotton Linen Cord Wool Hemp Skins Leather M.C.O with Charity Donation/ Reinvestment of Profit Product Offering M.C.O with Organic Cotton Product Offering M.C.O with Fairtrade Certified Product Offering ALTERNATIVE TEXTILES: Hemp Bamboo Sugar Cane PCD Eco-friendly Silk (Kalahari) Wild Silk Ingeo (corn-based) Merino Wool PCR Polyester M.C.O with Alternative Textile Product Offering Sweatshop Free Labour M.C.O with Re-Create/ Recycled Product Offering M.C.O with Labour Standard Product Offering FAIRTRADE Not Certified (combination of ethical labour & environmental operations) Fairtrade Certified Clothing Organisation Mainstream Clothing Organisation (M.C.O) Fig. 2 Taxonomy of Ethical/Fairtrade Clothing Organisations
FAIRTRADE Certified/ Organic Cotton/Alternative Textile/Chemical-Free Dyes/ Sweatshop Free Labour/Animal Cruelty Free/Renewable Energy/Recyclable Packaging/ Reinvestment back into communities/ minimised transport Organic Certification: EDUN Howies Katharine Hamnett Linda Loudermilk Loomstate Noir H&M Jerrrey Chow M&S Nike Oasis Paul Smith Proenza Schouler Sainsburys (RED)™ Products Converse GAP Armani 1% for the Planet Patagonia LABOUR STANDARDS: Katharine Hamnett EDUN Loomstate Noir M&S ALTERNATIVE TEXTILES: Bamboosa Deborah Milner EDUN Katharine Hamnett Linda Loudermilk Noir Sweatshop Free Labour: American Apparel Deborah Lindquist Howies Linda Loudermilk Armani Heatherette H&M Patagonia Topshop Urban Outfitters Adidas Armani Converse Diane von Furstenburg Imitation of Christ Nike Oscar de la Renta Equop Funky Gandhi Ideo THTC Tonic t-shirts Bishopston Trading Epona Gossypium Hug People Tree Traidcraft Debenehams Gap Levis M&S New Look Primark Mainstream Clothing Organisation (M.C.O) Fig. 2 Taxonomy of Ethical/Fairtrade Clothing Organisations
Fair Trade Disclosure • Critical Education • Theory of Sustainable Communication • Insights from an operational standpoint
Practical Application of Taxonomy • Helps understand sectoral position on Fairtrade • Taxonomy serves as a communication tool • Real solutions based on current market activity • Integration of CSR policies and practices into fashion & apparelorganisational strategy
Future Research • Examine aesthetic of fashion done ethically • ‘Fast’ fashion to ‘slow’ fashion • Stamina for consistency and growth in high-street retail • CSR in high fashion • Fashionable ethics v’s Ethical fashion?
Category of Organisation Definition of Category Type 1: Founder’s Ideals An extension of the founders ideals and values Type 2: Symbolism Being socially responsible stemmed from managements recognition that socially responsible behaviour was inextricably linked to the company’s successes and to discouraging further regulation that would alter the industry’s structure Type 3: Opportune Motivated by a compelling competitive advantage unrelated to social responsibility Type 4: Restraint Do not have a deliberate strategy of socially responsible buying. Socially responsible buying has non-negligible costs here Categories of organisations involved in Socially Responsible Organisational Buying (Source: Drumwright, 1994)