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Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. presented by: David N. Griffiths. Wednesday, April 19, 2000. University of California. Maritime Aspects of Arms Control and Security Improvement in the Middle East David N. Griffiths. IGCC. author: David N. Griffiths

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author: David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B


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    1. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Maritime Aspects of Arms Control and Security Improvement in the Middle East David N. Griffiths IGCC author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    2. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Although most security issues in the Middle East are rooted ashore, maritime considerations are important because: • there are maritime aspects to many of the security questions • the maritime dimension of the region offers unique opportunities in terms of trust, security, and prosperity 2 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    3. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Naval vs. Maritime Naval tends to focus ideas towards warships and naval stations Maritime involves armed and unarmed agencies, as well as economic, environmental, and humanitarian issues 3 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    4. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California The Nature of Confidence Building • An activity, undertaken honestly and in good faith, in which two or more parties seek to achieve a positive change in their security relationship • From the perspective of strategic analysis arms control deals with the issue of capabilities while confidence building addresses intentions 4 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    5. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Traditional Confidence Building Measures Analysis --James Macintosh 1985 • Information • Constraint • Declaratory measures (“non-use of force”) • Problem: In 1996 Macintosh concluded that this approach mistakenly focuses on measures rather than on the activity of confidence building 5 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    6. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Confidence Building vs. Confidence Building Measures • Instead of focusing on the unsatisfactory present acknowledge the potential for a positive future • Avoid focusing on measures entirely and deal with activities • Do not allow choice of words to limit or distort thinking (i.e. Instead of ‘constraint’ the use of ‘restraint’) 6 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    7. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California A Typology for Practical Confidence Builders • Based on Macintosh’s 1996 study Confidence Building in the Arms Control Process: A transformation view • Expressed in terms of actions instead of products • Consideration shifts from measures to steps • Restraint replaces constraint • A category for ‘cooperation’ is added 7 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    8. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California • Steps in the Building of Confidence • Cooperation in: • safety • security • economic prosperity • technology • peacekeeping • Restraint of: • activity • deployment • technology • Verification and Observation Facilitation: • providing opportunities to observe activities • observation of activities of interest • inspection • monitoring • facilitation of verification • Information, interaction, and communication: • exchanging information • sharing experience • establishing means of communication • notification of activities 8 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    9. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Maritime Confidence Building Experience Naval arms control efforts have been limited compared to those addressing land and airborne forces due to: • The problem of asymmetries in relation to maritime power and interests • Navies have roles other than war-fighting serving as diplomatic instruments in a way that armies and air forces are not 9 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    10. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Maritime Confidence Building Experience Prevention of Incidents at Sea (INCSEA) • US/Soviet agreement has been honored since 1972 even during considerable diplomatic tension and disputes • Its success has led to similar agreements around the world • Although it did not prevent all incidents it was effective in keeping incidents from escalating 10 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    11. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Other INCSEA or Similar Maritime Safety Arrangements: Germany & Poland (1990) Middle East (1994) US and China (1998) INCSEAs between US/Russia and: United States (1972) United Kingdom (1986) Canada (1989) Germany (1989) France (1989) Italy (1989) Netherlands (1990) Norway (1990) Spain (1990) Greece (1991) Japan (1993) Republic of Korea (1994) Turkey - discussions reportedly ongoing as of 1998 Portugal - discussions reportedly ongoing as of 1998 Other Maritime Initiatives: Swedish Multilateral UN proposal Western Pacific Naval Symposium India-Pakistan Greece-Turkey Dangerous Military Activities Arrangements: US/USSR (1990) Canada/USSR (1991) Greece/Russia (1993) China/Russia (1993) 11 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    12. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Maritime Confidence Building Experience Success of INCSEA is based on: • Mutual Interest • Simplicity • Professionalism • Preparation • Hospitality • Discretion • Verifiability and Accountability 12 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    13. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Regional Approaches to Maritime Confidence Building The Middle East • In 1993 the Arms Control and Regional Security Working Group (ACRS) began consideration of a cooperative search and rescue and the consideration of an INCSEA agreement • The Middle East “Guidelines for Operating Procedures” has generated much interest and is reflected in the 1998 maritime safety agreement between the US and China 13 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    14. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Regional Approaches to Maritime Confidence Building Asia-Pacific • Considerable need based on the great potential for maritime dispute • Maritime confidence building is active and well-established in both Track one and two approaches • In 1995 the ARF endorsed a Concept Paper which defines a regional approach to achieving security, peace, and prosperity as including confidence building measures 14 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    15. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Regional Approaches to Maritime Confidence Building Indian Ocean • India and Pakistan have shown great interest in an INCSEA • Nuclear weapons testing may have damaged the potential for such an agreement in the region 15 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    16. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Regional Approaches to Maritime Confidence Building Latin America • Confidence building in the region predates the CBM concept by 70 years • There are bilateral arrangements as well as multilateral efforts such as the Inter-American Naval Cooperation forum and the Naval War Colleges of the Americas • In 1995 the OAS issued the “Declaration of Santiago on Confidence and Security Building Measures” 16 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    17. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Regional Approaches to Maritime Confidence Building The Caribbean • Addresses non-traditional and non-military security concerns • The region has already attained the type of security relations confidence building is intended to promote • There is potential for further measures to deal with current problems of drug-trafficking, economic vulnerability and environmental hazards 17 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    18. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Regional Approaches to Maritime Confidence Building Euro-Atlantic • Illustrates the value of routine cooperation as a mechanism for confidence-building and dispute management • The region achieved this mutual trust through cooperation in NATO, WEU, and Partnership for Peace alliances 18 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    19. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Lessons from Maritime Cooperation Characteristics: • Common experiences among those who earn their living on the sea • Navies have created a diplomatic role and tradition • Longstanding tradition of international consultation • Maritime issues are generally secondary security considerations so dialogue is not as controversial • Maritime economics are rarely the concern of one nation in isolation 19 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    20. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Lessons from Maritime Cooperation INCSEA: • Any activity that engages former adversaries or rivals in working together is a powerful catalyst for confidence • Once confidence building is in progress there is less emphasis on prevention and constraint and new focus on coordination and cooperation 20 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    21. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Proposals for the Middle East: • A Historical Compendium • Senior Officer’s Dialogue • Staff Colleges • Maritime Information Exchange • Search and Rescue • Operational Safety 21 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc online http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/pp56.html

    22. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation presented by: David N. Griffiths Wednesday, April 19, 2000 University of California Proposals for the Middle East continued: • Coastal Zone Management • Marine Transport • Cooperative Enforcement • Maritime Peacekeeping Training • Maritime Environmental and Diving Medicine - Previous - 22 of 22 author:David N. Griffiths Pendragon Applied Research 3361 Lawrencetown Rd. Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia B2Z 1R5, Canada Robinson Building Complex 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0518 phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655 email ph13@sdcc12.ucsd.edu f for full text see igcc onlinehttp://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/publications/policy_papers/pp56.html