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Mobility Management in Low Carbon Cities. ECOMM Conference Graz, Austria 6 May 2010. Arjen Jaarsma and Fadiah Achmadi. CONTENTS Low carbon cities Cities on the road to sustainabiliy (Amsterdam and Masdar City) Mobility Management in Amsterdam (conventional approach)

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Mobility Management in Low Carbon Cities

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    1. Mobility Managementin Low Carbon Cities ECOMM Conference Graz, Austria 6 May 2010 Arjen Jaarsma and Fadiah Achmadi

    2. CONTENTS • Low carbon cities • Cities on the road to sustainabiliy (Amsterdam and Masdar City) • Mobility Management in Amsterdam (conventional approach) • Development of new MM approach for low carbon cities (Masdar City) • Conclusions

    3. LOW CARBON CITIES • Low carbon city = city with zero (or low) CO2 emissions. • Three main producers of CO2 in cities: • Buildings (housing, working) • Hard infrastructure (energy delivery, waste management, water supply, sewage, etc.) • Mobility of persons and goods (traffic)

    4. CDM as a CO2 calculation method • CDM = Clean Development Mechanism under Kyoto protocol • Crucial feature in CDM  carbon project (CO2 reduction through renewable energy and energy efficiency). • Two transportation systems with CDM accreditation: TransMilenio Bogotá& Metrobus Mexico City  CO2 credit for sustainable transport system  calculation method is very difficult and costly We expect that calculating a city’s reduction of CO2 emissions (for transport) will be very important in the next decades!

    5. CITIES ON THE ROAD TO SUSTAINABILITY • Amsterdam (the Netherlands) – solar energy / cycling / electric vehicles • Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (China) – new planned city with 90% Public Transport +cycling • Masdar City (UAE) – new planned city, the low carbon city of the future! Amsterdam vs Masdar City (old city) (new city)

    6. Amsterdam • one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in the world • a centre of bicycle culture with good cycling facilities • 600.000 bicycles for 750.000 residents • Amsterdam aims for 100% sustainable traffic by 2040  200.000 electric vehicles on the road • Amsterdam also plans for solar panels on (all) roofs in the city

    7. Masdar City • Twin city of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) • the city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources • Aims to be zero waste, zero carbon and fossil fuel free • The 1st large scale zero emission transport system • Maximum 250 meters walking distance to PT stops

    8. Masdar City • The construction of the city is ongoing. • The city will have: • 40.000 inhabitants • 70.000 workers • Personal Rapid Transit (PRT). • Light rail (LiRa). • connection to Abu Dhabi • metro system

    9. Mobility Management Measures Source: UN Habitat and GTZ

    10. MM measures in Amsterdam Strategies for Non-Motorised Modes  cycling policy

    11. MM measures in Amsterdam Parking pricing  off- and on-street parking

    12. MM measures in Masdar City This city is developed based on 10 principles (pillars) of sustainability (One Planet Living) Pillar 3  Travel by car and airplane is contributing to climate change, air and noise pollution, and congestion.

    13. Our challenge for this presentation: In which ways the conventional measures are / can be applied in Masdar City?

    14. 1. Integration of land use and transport planning • Masdar City is a brand new city which is built with the main purpose to be the first zero carbon city in the world. • The land use is planned coherently with the transport planning (a wall around the city / green zones / high building densities around PT stations).

    15. 2. Strategies for Non Motorised Modes (1) • Urban environment made for • people, not for cars. • Shaded walkways • Cycling facilities ?

    16. 2. Strategies for Non Motorised Modes (2) • The only motorised modes in the city are Personal Rapid Transit, Light Rail Transit, and metro. • No private cars allowed in the city. • Stops are accessible by • maximum 250 meters walking.

    17. 3. Physical restraint measures The city is planned to completely restrict cars inside the city  narrow streets + parking at the edge of the city

    18. 4. Road pricing • Cars are not allowed in the city  How to avoid a situation where many cars are coming and parking at the edge of the city? • Road pricing might be applicable for the access roads to the P+R’s and parking garages at the edge of the city • Road pricing: • eliminates the number of parked cars at the parking areas outside the city wall • increases the possibility of more people using metro and LiRa to access the Masdar city • expected outcome: the low carbon area is not limited only in the city but also on a certain distance outside the city.

    19. 5. Regulation of parking supply • In the current plans for Masdar City, parking will be supplied at the edge of the city (probably in multi storey parking buildings). • In our view: parking could be regulated in Masdar City to enhance sustainability of the city, by e.g. • Several privileges for electric / clean cars (e.g. parking next to the PRT / PT stop) • Enough parking supply near PT stops just outside Masdar city (P+R) – differentiating parking fees to regulate supply and demand • Consider private car usage for the inhabitants of Masdar City as an adjacent mode of transport (‘’when it is not convenient to use public transport or to walk”) • Provide attractive shared car schemes

    20. 6. Public awareness campaigns • Knowledge dissemination about sustainability to the inhabitants is started at basic school to spread the awareness over. • Masdar Institute will be the leading institution and the knowledge center of sustainability

    21. 7. Promotion of MM in companies • Masdar City will be home to 1500 companies. • At the early stage, it is of importance to develop a cooperation scheme with the companies to promote sustainable mobility. • Incentives can be introduced to encourage the companies to apply for example flexible working hours, telecommuting, dedicated (semi) public transport for employees, etc.

    22. The new approach of Mobility Management • Low carbon cities like Masdar City have good supply of public transport and a good built environment. • It is also important to influence the life style of the inhabitants • The new approach of mobility management:

    23. Conclusions • Masdar City will become a trend setter of a low carbon city and a knowledge centre referred by the next sustainable cities. • Masdar City as a low carbon city has a very strong focus on land use planning + supply of transport modes. • The Conventional MM is based on cities built for cars (and manage the demand). • For Masdar City a new form of MM has to be developed to influence the life style. • Implementation of MM in a new city is more effective and efficient because the behavior of the inhabitants is shaped from the initial phase. • Evaluation of MM measures by calculating CO2 emissions of low carbon city and its inhabitants is extremely important