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Mobility Management in Low Carbon Cities. ECOMM Conference Graz, Austria 6 May 2010. Arjen Jaarsma and Fadiah Achmadi. CONTENTS Low carbon cities Cities on the road to sustainabiliy (Amsterdam and Masdar City) Mobility Management in Amsterdam (conventional approach)

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mobility management in low carbon cities

Mobility Managementin Low Carbon Cities

ECOMM Conference

Graz, Austria

6 May 2010

Arjen Jaarsma and Fadiah Achmadi



    • Low carbon cities
    • Cities on the road to sustainabiliy (Amsterdam and Masdar City)
    • Mobility Management in Amsterdam (conventional approach)
    • Development of new MM approach for low carbon cities (Masdar City)
    • Conclusions



    • Low carbon city = city with zero (or low) CO2 emissions.
    • Three main producers of CO2 in cities:
    • Buildings (housing, working)
    • Hard infrastructure (energy delivery, waste management, water supply, sewage, etc.)
    • Mobility of persons and goods (traffic)

cdm as a co2 calculation method
CDM as a CO2 calculation method
  • CDM = Clean Development Mechanism under Kyoto protocol
  • Crucial feature in CDM  carbon project (CO2 reduction through renewable energy and energy efficiency).
  • Two transportation systems with CDM accreditation:

TransMilenio Bogotá& Metrobus Mexico City

 CO2 credit for sustainable transport system

 calculation method is very difficult and costly

We expect that calculating a city’s reduction of CO2 emissions

(for transport) will be very important in the next decades!



    • Amsterdam (the Netherlands) – solar energy / cycling / electric vehicles
    • Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (China) – new planned city with 90% Public Transport +cycling
    • Masdar City (UAE) – new planned city, the low carbon city of the future!

Amsterdam vs Masdar City

(old city) (new city)

  • one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in the world
  • a centre of bicycle culture with good cycling facilities
  • 600.000 bicycles for 750.000 residents
  • Amsterdam aims for 100% sustainable traffic by 2040  200.000 electric vehicles on the road
  • Amsterdam also plans for solar panels on (all) roofs in the city

masdar city
Masdar City
  • Twin city of Abu Dhabi

(United Arab Emirates)

  • the city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources
  • Aims to be zero waste, zero carbon and fossil fuel free
  • The 1st large scale zero emission transport system
  • Maximum 250 meters walking distance to PT stops

masdar city8
Masdar City
  • The construction of the city is ongoing.
  • The city will have:
  • 40.000 inhabitants
  • 70.000 workers
  • Personal Rapid Transit (PRT).
  • Light rail (LiRa).
  • connection to Abu Dhabi
  • metro system

mobility management measures
Mobility Management Measures

Source: UN Habitat and GTZ

mm measures in amsterdam
MM measures in Amsterdam

Strategies for Non-Motorised Modes  cycling policy

mm measures in amsterdam11
MM measures in Amsterdam

Parking pricing  off- and on-street parking

mm measures in masdar city
MM measures in Masdar City

This city is developed based on 10 principles (pillars) of sustainability (One Planet Living)

Pillar 3  Travel by car and airplane is contributing to climate change, air and noise pollution, and congestion.


Our challenge for this presentation:

In which ways the conventional measures are / can be applied in Masdar City?

1 integration of land use and transport planning
1. Integration of land use and transport planning
  • Masdar City is a brand new city which is built with the main purpose to be the first zero carbon city in the world.
  • The land use is planned coherently with the transport planning (a wall around the city / green zones / high building densities around PT stations).

2 strategies for non motorised modes 1
2. Strategies for Non Motorised Modes (1)
  • Urban environment made for
  • people, not for cars.
  • Shaded walkways
  • Cycling facilities ?

2 strategies for non motorised modes 2
2. Strategies for Non Motorised Modes (2)
  • The only motorised modes in the city are Personal Rapid Transit, Light Rail Transit, and metro.
  • No private cars allowed in the city.
  • Stops are accessible by
  • maximum 250 meters walking.

3 physical restraint measures
3. Physical restraint measures

The city is planned to completely restrict cars inside the city

 narrow streets + parking at the edge of the city

4 road pricing
4. Road pricing
  • Cars are not allowed in the city  How to avoid a situation where many cars are coming and parking at the edge of the city?
  • Road pricing might be applicable for the access roads to the P+R’s and parking garages at the edge of the city
  • Road pricing:
  • eliminates the number of parked cars at the parking areas outside the city wall
  • increases the possibility of more people using metro and LiRa to access the Masdar city
  • expected outcome: the low carbon area is not limited only in the city but also on a certain distance outside the city.

5 regulation of parking supply
5. Regulation of parking supply
  • In the current plans for Masdar City, parking will be supplied at the edge of the city (probably in multi storey parking buildings).
  • In our view: parking could be regulated in Masdar City to enhance sustainability of the city, by e.g.
    • Several privileges for electric / clean cars (e.g. parking next to the PRT / PT stop)
    • Enough parking supply near PT stops just outside Masdar city (P+R) – differentiating parking fees to regulate supply and demand
  • Consider private car usage for the inhabitants of Masdar City as an adjacent mode of transport (‘’when it is not convenient to use public transport or to walk”)
    • Provide attractive shared car schemes

6 public awareness campaigns
6. Public awareness campaigns
  • Knowledge dissemination about sustainability to the inhabitants is started at basic school to spread the awareness over.
  • Masdar Institute will be the leading institution and the knowledge center of sustainability

7 promotion of mm in companies
7. Promotion of MM in companies
  • Masdar City will be home to 1500 companies.
  • At the early stage, it is of importance to develop a cooperation scheme with the companies to promote sustainable mobility.
  • Incentives can be introduced to encourage the companies to apply for example flexible working hours, telecommuting, dedicated (semi) public transport for employees, etc.

the new approach of mobility management
The new approach of Mobility Management
  • Low carbon cities like Masdar City have good supply of public transport and a good built environment.
  • It is also important to influence the life style of the inhabitants
  • The new approach of mobility management:

  • Masdar City will become a trend setter of a low carbon city and a knowledge centre referred by the next sustainable cities.
  • Masdar City as a low carbon city has a very strong focus on land use planning + supply of transport modes.
  • The Conventional MM is based on cities built for cars (and manage the demand).
  • For Masdar City a new form of MM has to be developed to influence the life style.
  • Implementation of MM in a new city is more effective and efficient because the behavior of the inhabitants is shaped from the initial phase.
  • Evaluation of MM measures by calculating CO2 emissions of low carbon city and its inhabitants is extremely important