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Global Media. Communication Around The World. Media Ideals Around The World . Four Theories of the Press (1956): written by Fred S. Siebert, Theodore Peterson, and Wilbur Schramm four major forms of international press: authoritarian libertarian Soviet/communist

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Global media l.jpg

Global Media

Communication Around The World


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Media Ideals Around The World

Four Theories of the Press (1956):

  • written by Fred S. Siebert, Theodore Peterson, and Wilbur Schramm

  • four major forms of international press:

    • authoritarian

    • libertarian

    • Soviet/communist

    • social responsibility


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Last Rights: Revisiting Four Theories of the Press:

  • 1995 book written by John Nerone

  • update of earlier four theories

  • argued four theories were not a timeless set of categories

  • saw them as a critique set within a particular time period

    A fifth theory?

  • development theory


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  • Authoritarian theory

    • oldest theory of the press

    • role of the press is to be a servant of the government

    • control of the press is carried out by:

      • giving permits to only certain printers

      • prosecuting anyone who violates standards

      • totalitarian governments (example in the1990s: Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic)


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  • Communist Theory

    • press is run by the government to serve the government’s own needs

    • only one valid political and social philosophy

    • proposes the following principles:

      • The media are an instrument of the government and the Communist Party.

      • The media should be closely tied to other sources of government power.

      • The media’s main purpose is to act as a tool for government propaganda.


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  • Libertarian Theory

    • Press belongs to the people and serves as an independent observer of the government.

    • It follows the basic ideals of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

    • It is based on the following principles:

      • People want to know the truth and be guided by it.

      • The only way to arrive at the truth is for ideas to be freely and openly discussed.

      • Different people will have different opinions, and everyone must be allowed to develop their own.

      • The most rational ideas will be the most accepted

  • The functions of the press are to inform, entertain, and advertise.


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  • Social Responsibility Theory

    • while the press may be free from interference by the government, it can still be controlled by corporate interests

    • press obliged to serve several social functions:

      • provide the news and information needed to make the political system work

      • give the public the information needed for self-governance

      • serve as an overseer of the government

      • serve the economic function of bringing together buyers and sellers through advertising

      • provide entertainment

      • be profitable enough to avoid outside pressures.


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  • Norms for the press in the twenty-first century

    • development theory:

      • addresses the special needs of emerging nations

      • governments may feel that they need to restrict freedom of the press in order to promote industry, national identity, and partnerships with neighboring nations


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Going Global—Media Standards Around The World

  • Alan Ward’s five dimensions of media rating:

    • control

    • finance

    • programming goals

    • target audience

    • feedback mechanism


Http www youtube com watch v pn8hrcn1nmy l.jpg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pn8hrcN1NMY

Canada

free press patterned on the United States

U.S. media tends to overshadow Canadian;

Canadian radio must be at least 35 % domestic


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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8Hr1z3w4hM

Britainbroadcasting was dominated by state-run monopolies up until the 1980s.public service and cultural preservation prioritiesBritain and BBC:operates under a public service modelaudience members pay the cost of the programming (equipment licensing fees)


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  • Internet not as pervasive

  • increase in privately owned television stations

  • newspapers tend to take an obvious political view point

  • newspaper readership worldwide highest in Europe

    • facing declines


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http://www.televisa.com/programas/noticieros-y-analisis/

  • Central and Latin America

    • broadcasting dominated by North American, Mexican, and Brazilian programming

    • fewer language barriers than other regions

    • newspaper circulation has been growing

      • 1,000 papers, 100 million readership


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Islamic Countries and the Middle East

  • straddle the fence between social responsibility and authoritarian media control

  • controls on journalists and content

  • Al Hayat and Al-Jazeera

  • satellite and Internet and “small media” allowing bypass of control


Http www youtube com user aljazeeraenglish blend 1 ob 4 l.jpg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPbamN4v2Mc

http://www.youtube.com/user/aljazeeraenglish?blend=1&ob=4



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  • The importance of “small” media world:

    • fax machines, photocopy machines, video cameras, computers, and the Internet

    • provide for a range of voices

    • Internet allows for wider expression

    • size and availability make control difficult


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  • Television in the Islamic World world:

    • heavy government control

    • varied availability

    • Saudi Arabian network (1960s)

    • little known about Saudi viewer habits

      • 1995 survey—63 percent had access to satellite programming


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  • Al-Jazeera world:

    • broadcast via satellite from Qatar since 1997

    • only 10 percent of all Arabs with satellite TV never watch it

    • committed to presenting an Arab view of the world

    • founded by Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani

    • started after failed Arabic-language BBC project


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Africa world:

  • prime example of development media theory

  • early media covered white settlers only

  • newspapers found in large cities

    • circulation limited by poverty and illiteracy


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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BxIAJQpVNc4 world:

  • radio is the most important medium

  • Television and Internet limited

  • no major newspapers are published in African languages

  • more languages spoken than any other continent


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South Africa world:

  • South African Broadcasting Corporation

  • committee of lawyers and media professionals regulate the broadcast industry

  • .seven different languages

  • source of inspiration for Western pop music

    • township jive

    • artists have recorded with Western artists


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Russia and the former Soviet republics world:

  • under communism, no ideal of an independent press

  • control continues even after 1991 fall of Soviet Union

    • most media owned by private, pro-government business people

  • Moscow—twenty daily and weekly newspapers


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    Russia world:

    • zakazukha—selling articles to highest bidder

    • some papers supports the boss’s political agenda

    • television is the most important medium

      • few can afford newspapers

  • http://www.artn.tv/


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    India world:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDa0CKy1fTU

    • 40 percent of India’s households have television sets

    • 40 percent read newspapers

    • 120 million of 220 million households have a radio

    • newspapers are big industry

    • All India Radio (AIR) dominant radio source


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    China world:

    • role of the media is to promote public policies

    • all media are controlled by the government

    • .”


    Http www youtube com watch v y7gh heimjm l.jpg
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7gH-HEiMJM world:

    • Kenneth Petress on Chinese media:

      • “Propaganda is not a dirty word in China; it is a respected public service profession


    Http www youtube com watch v x7qj6yrcqxq l.jpg
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x7qj6yRcqXQ world:

    • American policy helped shape Japanese media after World War II

    • NHK is Japan’s public broadcasting corporation

    • Balance between commercial and public broadcasting


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    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9KHylRrwSQ&feature=PlayList&p=9ACBC1879B0A0AD0&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=19http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9KHylRrwSQ&feature=PlayList&p=9ACBC1879B0A0AD0&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=19

    • manga, or comic books, are the most popular magazines:

      • account for 40 percent of all books and magazines

      • growing in popularity in the United States


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    Dangers to Journalists: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9KHylRrwSQ&feature=PlayList&p=9ACBC1879B0A0AD0&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=19

    • In 2006 worldwide 55 journalists were killed

      • 32 of them were in Iraq (4 combat-related, 28 murdered)

  • ABC News anchor Bob Woodruff injured

  • hostage-taking increasing

  • fear of reprisals discouraging journalistic coverage in danger spots


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    Woodruff http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9KHylRrwSQ&feature=PlayList&p=9ACBC1879B0A0AD0&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=19


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    • Marshall McLuhan’s Global Village:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9KHylRrwSQ&feature=PlayList&p=9ACBC1879B0A0AD0&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=19electronic media help people live and interact globally


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    • Ken Auletta:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9KHylRrwSQ&feature=PlayList&p=9ACBC1879B0A0AD0&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=19

      • perhaps not just one single wired global village

      • perhaps hundreds or thousands of global villages

  • W. Russell Neuman:

    • just because we have access, people may choose to ignore it


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