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Collaborative Image-based Tagging and Interactive Mapping on Tabletops. Presented By: Glen Whitaker Supervisor: Judy Kay. Research Question. How to Support Tabletop interaction for organisation of Content? Why is it important? Novelty of User Interface Organising is fundamental

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collaborative image based tagging and interactive mapping on tabletops

Collaborative Image-based Tagging and Interactive Mapping on Tabletops

Presented By: Glen Whitaker

Supervisor: Judy Kay

research question
Research Question
  • How to Support Tabletop interaction for organisation of Content?
  • Why is it important?
    • Novelty of User Interface
    • Organising is fundamental
      • Especially file systems
  • Constraints?
    • Limited methods of input
  • Challenges?
    • No established toolkits, primitives, UI design
    • No guidelines
    • Research - Cruiser Tabletop as exploratory framework
refined research question
Refined Research Question
  • How to Support Tabletop interaction for organisation of Content using Tagging and Maps?
  • Why?
    • Tagging text is similar to associating file name and location to files in a file system
    • Maps similar concept to the folder structure in a file system
sub problem how to support tagging at tabletop
Sub-Problem: How to Support Tagging at Tabletop
  • Adding Tags to Images
  • Linking Images to maps
  • Single text/image tags
  • Multiple Tags
refinement elements of tagging
Refinement: Elements of Tagging
  • Way to organise and find digital artefacts
  • Key interface tasks for tagging
    • Defining tags
    • Adding tags to objects
    • Viewing tags
    • Searching tags
    • Deleting tags
  • How to achieve this on Tabletop Interfaces?
approach 1 mytags
Approach 1: MyTags
  • Inspired by TeamTag
    • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "TeamTag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.
  • Text-Based Tagging
  • Adding Text to Images
  • Adding Multiple Text to Images
approach 2 mymaps
Approach 2: MyMaps
  • Image-based Tagging in context of maps
  • Adding Images to Map Locations
    • Placing image on a single map location/region
  • Adding Images to Multiple Map Locations
    • Placing an image to multiple regions on map
defining tags
Defining Tags
  • Tags are predefined (externally in a file/database)
  • Tags represented by special objects
viewing tags
Viewing Tags
  • MyTags
    • Flip image over to view list of text
  • MyMaps
    • Dwell on tag to view image
  • Viewing is same for single and multiple tags in both MyTags and MyMaps
deleting tags
Deleting Tags
  • Move tag to blackhole
  • Same for tags in both MyMaps and MyTags
  • Same for single and multiple tags
the framework
The Framework
  • Cruiser
    • Images
    • Blackhole (garbage collection object)
  • Tagging Primitives
    • Adding Text Tags
    • Adding Image based tags
    • Adding Regions
    • View Tags
    • Delete Tags
previous elements
Previous Elements

Blackhole

Images

  • Previous Elements used by MyMaps:
    • Blackhole (garbage collection object)
    • Images (used to represent exhibits)
      • Audio can be associated with image
      • Images can have other images placed on back
new elements
New Elements
  • “New” elements of the Cruiser Tabletop
    • Map Resources
    • Map Region Creation Tool
    • “Pin Images” similar to pins on a notice board
    • Image Region Identification

Map

Back of Image

Region

Pin Images

Text Attachment

Region Tool

Text Object

architecture
Architecture

= Trent’s Cruiser Elements

= New Elements

evaluation
Evaluation
  • Performance
    • Successful Tagging with MyTag
    • Successful Tagging with MyMaps
  • Other usability elements
    • Comparison of affordances
    • Learnability
    • Error Rate
    • Error Recovery
  • Collocated Collaboration UI aspects
    • Duplicated Maps
    • UI Facilitates Collaboration
  • Evaluate Effects of Short term memory load
    • Images
    • Maps
evaluation design
Evaluation Design
  • Qualitative Evaluations
  • 6 Pairs (User A, User B)
  • Asked to design their own museum
  • Double cross over condition (TeamTag and MyMaps + MyTags)
  • User A and B given different sets of text attached to 10 images
  • Questionnaire for effective issues:
    • Preference, attitudes, perspective
evaluation steps
Evaluation Steps
  • Tutorial
  • Task 1
    • Design virtual Museum
  • Task 2
    • Free-form virtual Museum
  • Tutorial of cross-over system
  • Repeat Tasks 1 and 2 for cross over system
  • Questionnaire

Encourage Collaboration in Tagging Context

Evaluate Collaboration and usability without design limitations

Double cross-over to control first system effect

slide22
10/12 Preferred Second System

2 preferred MyMaps even as first system

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X

slide23
2 People (1 Pair) liked both

Others evenly split

Some commented regions suited task better and less planning needed

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X

slide24
5 People (2 Pairs + 1) liked but hardware limitations prevented effective use

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X

slide25
All participants liked Image Tagging and could use comfortably

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X

slide26
Manly yes, participants lost tags creating objects

Pair 1 preferred flexibility to organise

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X

performance results
Performance Results
  • Successful Tagging with MyTag
    • Association of Text to objects performed with low error rate
    • Pairs completed tasks successfully using method
  • Successful Tagging with MyMaps
    • Association of Images was performed with low error rate
    • Pairs completed tasks successfully using method
other usability elements
Other usability elements
  • Swipe action for text tagging was liked and not really in the design
  • Learnability
    • Easy to learn tagging primitives
  • Error Rate/Recovery
    • Low error rate for Swipe/movement text association technique
      • Errors were due to having multiple images flipped within path of movement
    • Low error rate for image tags on maps
      • Errors were mainly a result of lack planning suitable location
    • Image Tags
      • Errors fixed by deletion of reference point and further planning
    • Text Tags
      • Errors fixed by deletion of attached text
collocated collaboration
Collocated Collaboration
  • Duplicate Maps
    • Participants did not use replicated maps as expected Hardware limitations - multiple use - affected this
    • 3 out of 12 participants used second map as a thumbnail view of the focus map
  • UI Facilitates Collaboration
    • Participants shared text objects
    • Participants collaboratively planned image tag locations
    • Participants collaboratively planned text tags for each image
effects on short term memory load
Effects on Short-Term Memory Load
  • Images
    • Images are flipped in tagging, causing short-term memory load but avoiding confusion
    • Images could not be semi-transparent since it would conflict with other functions
  • Maps
    • Dwelling needed to view images relating to tags
    • image tag design reduced clutter and confusion about map objects as the cost of the need to check what reference points represented
  • Participants were observed to have minor problems remembering tags with the small sample of images and text
caveats
Caveats
  • Hardware
    • Mimio capturing technology used for Cruiser only allows one interaction at a time
  • Software
    • Objects are 2-Dimensional representations
    • Text predefined in external file loaded at start up
    • Precision of interaction depends on accuracy of calibration
future work
Future Work
  • Handwriting for tag inputs
  • Backend database for efficiency (minimise I/O)
  • Personalised recommendations based on tags
  • Link tagging to file system – (Anthony Collins thesis)
contribution
Contribution
  • Significant progress in understanding how to support collocated collaborative planning at a tabletop
  • Insight into new gestures for image tagging and text tagging on tabletops
  • Swipe gesture discovered
results
Results
  • Was 6 pairs enough?
    • Sample showed consistent patterns relating to Image Tagging
    • Provided substantial usability, performance, collaboration and affordance results
    • More detailed and extensive evaluations required for further results
background virtual museum implementation
Background: Virtual Museum Implementation
  • Virtual Museums
    • Digital Technology being used to display exhibits while preserving the contents of an exhibit in digital format
    • Augmented Reality and 3D Modelling advancements allow photorealistic exhibits
  • Huang, C., C. Chen, and P. Chung. "Projects in VR: Tangible Photorealistic Virtual Museum." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications: IEEE, 2005. pp 15 - 17.
direct touch interfaces
Direct Touch Interfaces
  • DiamondTouch Tabletop
    • Direct-Touch Based Interaction
    • Unique identification based on circuits through chairs/pads
  • Other Touch based tables include: SmartSkin, Entertaible and Misto
  • Ryall, K., M.R. Morris, K. Everitt, C. Forlines, and C. Shen. "Experiences with and Observations of Direct-Touch Tabletops." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.
lumisight rear projection design
Lumisight – Rear Projection Design
  • Lumisight Tabletop
    • Projectors inside the table project different images in different directions
    • Number of users limited to number of projectors
  • Kakehi, Y., T. Hosomi, M. Iida, T. Naemura, and M. Matsushita. "Transparent Tabletop Interface for Multiple Users on Lumisight Table." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.
teamsearch
TeamSearch
  • TeamSearch
    • Use of special widgets to represent metadata shared by all users
    • Search images through use of widgets
    • Search through manually tagged images using widgets
  • Morris, M.R., A. Paepcke, and T. Winograd. "Teamsearch: Comparing Techniques for Co-Present Collaborative Search of Digital Media." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006. pp 97 - 104.

Widget

Personal Space

Query Objects

Metadata inside widgets

teamsearch40
TeamSearch
  • Added Tags
    • Tags in the original implementation were added manually to each image
  • Searching
    • Users search the photos by placing query object onto the metadata values
    • Thumbnails of matching photo’s appear in that user’s personal space
  • Tags are
    • Metadata that matches the contents of the widgets
teamtag
TeamTag
  • TeamTag
    • Presentation and association of metadata
    • Centralised-control (TeamSearch approach) and Replicated-control design
  • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "TeamTag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.

Centralised-Controls Design

Replicated-Controls Design

teamtag42
TeamTag
  • Centralised-controls design
    • Implementation of TeamSearch widgets
    • Users attach metadata by tapping image, then subsequently selecting a piece of metadata in a widget
  • Replicated-controls design
    • Presents metadata categorised into columns that are presented in front of each user
    • Users attach metadata by tapping image, then subsequently selecting a piece of metadata in the collection presented in front of them
teamtag43
TeamTag
  • Added Tags
    • Tapping the image to be tagged and the subsequent piece of metadata selected by that user is attached
    • Multiple tags can be associated to images using this method
  • Tags are
    • Defined sets of metadata
  • Viewing Tags
    • Popup lists present what metadata is associated with an image
    • Popup lists activated by a user touching an image with two fingers
centralised vs replicated
Centralised Vs Replicated
  • Evaluated in context of zoo, labelling each image with appropriate metadata in groups of 4
  • 19 out of 24 subjects preferred replicated metadata interface
  • Collaborative evaluation of replicated interface showed on average 1.24 users contributed to the tagging of an image
  • Group collaboration and communication levels presented no significant difference
google maps
Google Maps
  • Google Maps
    • Interactively move around map of world
    • Zoom in on satellite and road maps of areas around the world
    • Identify businesses on the maps by providing business info to Google to tag based on street address
    • WikiMapia provides user defined region tagging
  • Google Maps Tour. Google. Available: http://www.google.com/help/maps/tour/. 10th of August 2006.
google maps46
Google Maps
  • Added Tags
    • WikiMapia – Drawing of a box on the map to indicate a region
    • Google Maps – Entering of data with the location being labelled by the system based on data inputted about a business
  • Searching
    • Searches performed by comparing text inputted to the metadata that is associated with a tag
  • Tags
    • WikiMapia – regions are user defined boxes with a text tag identifying what the region is
    • Google Maps – identifies single addresses with business details associated with that address (limited to USA, Japan, UK, China and Canada)
  • Point Vs Region
    • WikiMapia allows user identification of regions
    • Google maps allows identification of single addresses on maps
the cruiser
The Cruiser
  • Cruiser Tabletop
    • Uses Mimio® to Capture Interaction
    • Uses Pen stylus devices for interaction
    • Number of users limited to Pen Numbers
  • MyMaps and current software on the cruiser can be implemented using DiamondTouch interfaces
  • Trent Apted’s First Year of PhD presentation on Photo sharing with Sharepic system and the Cruiser Tabletop
map resources
Map Resources
  • Contribution
    • Explore how collaborative planning activities can be performed on tabletop interfaces
    • Provides a context for image based tagging
  • Transparency levels represent the interactive state
  • Maps are replicated for the number of users

Interactive Map

Non-Interactive Map

Map With some Tags

Walls in Museum

regions
Regions
  • Contribution
    • Categorisation through areas on map objects
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of planning through the identification of regions
  • Using a region creation tool to identify these regions
  • Image tagged to maps within regions inherit any text for those regions

Attached Regions

Region Creation Tool

E.g. Greek

E.g. Roman

image tags
Image Tags
  • Contribution
    • Evaluation of the effectiveness of image based tagging on collaborative interfaces
    • Evaluate how this assists in planning tasks on tabletop interfaces
  • Assigned by performing a gesture on the image to be attached while placed on top of the map

Map with Image Tags of 2 different Users

Images

text association
Text Association
  • Contribution
    • Compare swipe (MyMaps) to tapping (TeamTag)
    • Compare Map-based tagging and TeamTag approach to tag Images
  • Attach text by dragging over the back of images and regions

Back of Image

Text Attachment

Text Object

image based tagging
Image Based Tagging
  • Metadata stored in text format within a designated folder
  • Metadata stored for images and regions:
    • Maps
    • Regions
    • Rotations
    • Locations
    • Text
    • Scale
  • Each entry of a location in the tag files for each image and region represents a tag on a designated map

##LOCATION

: , ,

: , ,

image based tagging53
Image Based Tagging
  • Tags are represented by special “Pin Images” which are small (at the moment) blue spherical-like images that resemble a pin
  • Each “Pin Image” relies on a designated rotation entry and location entry

##ROTATION

##LOCATION

: , ,

: , ,

  • Images that are linked to regions are also indirectly associated to the map that the region is linked to
other tabletop research
Other Tabletop Research
  • Benko, H., A.D. Wilson, and P. Baudisch. "Precise Selection Techniques for Multi-Touch Screens." SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems ACM Press, 2006. pp 1263 - 72.
  • Ha, V., K. Inkpen, R. Mandryk, and T. Whalen. "Direct Intentions: The Effect of Input Devices on Collaboration around a Tabletop Display." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.
  • Ryall, K., K. Everitt, C. Forlines, and C. Shen. "Multispace: Enabling Electronic Document Micro-Mobility in Table-Centric Mult-Devie Environments." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.
  • Scott, S., M. Sheelagh, T. Carpendale, and K. Inkpen. "Territoriality in Collaborative Tabletop Workspaces " Proceedings of the ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work ACM Press, 2004. 294 - 303.
  • Tang, A., M. Tory, B. Po, P. Neumann, and S. Carpendale. "Collaborative Coupling over Tabletop Displays." SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. pp 1181 - 90.
more tags
More Tags …
  • Wikimapia. Available: http://www.wikimapia.org. 10th of August 2006.
  • Toyama, K., R. Logan, and A. Roseway. "Geographic Location Tags on Digital Images." Proceedings of the eleventh ACM international conference on Multimedia ACM Press, 2003. pp 156 - 66.
  • Marlow, C., M. Naaman, D. Boyd, and M. Davis. "Ht06, Tagging Paper, Taxonomy, Flickr, Academic Article, to Read." The seventeenth conference on Hypertext and hypermedia ACM Press, 2006. pp 31 - 40.
  • Del.Icio.Us. Available: http://del.icio.us/. 3rd of September 2006.
  • Google Maps. Google. Available: http://maps.google.com/. 10th of August 2006.
  • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "Teamtag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.
references
References
  • Koshizuka, N., and K. Sakamura. "Tokyo University Digital Museum." International Conference on Digital Libraries: Research and Practice Kyoto, 2000. pp 85 - 92.
  • WikiMapia. Google. Available: http://www.wikimapia.org. 10th of August 2006.
  • Kakehi, Y., T. Hosomi, M. Iida, T. Naemura, and M. Matsushita. "Transparent Tabletop Interface for Multiple Users on Lumisight Table." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.
  • Huang, C., C. Chen, and P. Chung. "Projects in VR: Tangible Photorealistic Virtual Museum." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications: IEEE, 2005. pp 15 - 17.
  • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "Teamtag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.
references58
References
  • Morris, M.R., A. Paepcke, and T. Winograd. "Teamsearch: Comparing Techniques for Co-Present Collaborative Search of Digital Media." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006. pp 97 - 104.
  • Trent Apted’s First Year of PhD presentation on Photo sharing with Sharepic system and the Cruiser Tabletop
  • Ryall, K., M.R. Morris, K. Everitt, C. Forlines, and C. Shen. "Experiences with and Observations of Direct-Touch Tabletops." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.
  • Google Maps Tour. Google. Available: http://www.google.com/help/maps/tour/. 10th of August 2006.
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