Return to ACA Return to Portfolio TOC (link will only work if in “view show” mode. Brown vs. The Board of Education. Dave Baniszewski Mike Bryant Helen Reyes David Rutledge EDUC 845 Liberty University. The escalation of segregation in the South began immediately after the Civil War. .
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The escalation of segregation in the South began immediately after the Civil War.
The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, along with the two Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 and the various Enforcements Acts of the early 1870s, curtailed the ability of southern whites to formally deprive blacks of their civil rights.
The decade of the 1880s was characterized by mob lynching‘s and a vicious system of convict prison farms and chain gains
In 1890 Louisiana passes the infamous Jim Crow law mandating separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites
By 1910, every state of the former Confederacy had adopted laws that segregated all aspects of life wherein blacks and whites might socially mingle or come into contact.
Impoverished and often illiterate southern blacks were in a weak position in the 1890s for confronting the racist culture of Jim Crow.
By 1905, the issue of how to most effectively deal with Jim Crow came to a head in the debate between the followers of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois.
In the 1930s, the NAACP, began to focus more of its attention on a campaign to challenge segregation
After the Civil War, the southern states scrambled to recover and keep the public school system alive. Ultimately this effort created a dual educational system based on race.
Schools were anything but equal
Case Name: Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)Plaintiffs: Homer Plessy
Defendants: John H. Ferguson, judge of the criminal District Court for the parish of Orleans
Location: New Orleans, Louisiana
Year : Argued: April 13, 1896 Decided: May 18, 1896
Case Name: State of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 305 U.S. 337 (1938)
Plaintiffs: Lloyd Gaines
Defendants: CANADA, REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI
Year: Argued: November 9, 1938 Decided: December 12, 1938
Case Name: Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County, 175 U.S. 528 (1899)
Plaintiffs: Cumming, Harper and Ladeveze
Defendants: The Board of Education of Richmond County and Charles S. Bohler, tax collector.
Location: Richmond County Georgia
Year: Argued: October 30, 1899 Decided: December 18, 1899
Case Name: Gong Lum v. Rice, 275 U.S. 78 (1927)
Plaintiffs: Gong Lum and Martha Lum
Defendants: Superintendent of Education of the State of Mississippi
Year: Argued: October 12, 1927 Decided: November 21, 1927 196
Several Cases Were Combined into One
“Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”
Regular Public School Enrollments by Race/Ethnicity and Region, 2000 - 2001
Reprinted with permission from the Civil Rights Project, Harvard University
Racial Composition of Schools Attended by the Average Student of Each Race, 2001 - 2001