northern plains native personal trainer institute n.
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  1. NORTHERN PLAINS NATIVE PERSONAL TRAINER INSTITUTE CRL Health & Fitness, LLC Lita Pepion, President/CEO B.S Biology/Master Trainer/Certified Personal Trainer Health & Fitness Consultant/Certified Group Fitness Instructor Theresa Pepion, RN Health Promotions Specialist/Health Educator/Water Fitness Instructor


  3. Certifications by FiTOUR® • Use Internet Explorer (free download at • Go to • Click “Exam Center” • Login using your email address and password (get at training) • Log in to the FiTOUR® Exam Center • Choose “Click here to take exams that you paid for but not yet taken” • Click “Begin Exam Now” (3 hour time limit starts) • Answer the questions • Review your answers • Choose “End Test” button when ready

  4. After you have take the FiTOUR® Certification Exam • Graded automatically • Results provided immediately • Score 75% or higher? Get official FiTOUR® certificate within 21 business days at address submitted during registration. • Less than 75%? Option to purchase a FiTOUR® Retest for $25.

  5. Any problems with taking exam or getting your Certification: • Contact Lita at CRL Health & Fitness Email: Phone: (406) 534-6791 (406) 208-5779

  6. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE • Physical Activity: any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure; can be organized or as simple as a mother chasing behind her kids * • Exercise is a subset of physical activity characterized by planned, organized and repetitive components aimed at improving or maintaining physical fitness * • Physical Fitness includes a set of attributes that are neither health or skill related *

  7. BENEFITS OF EXERCISE * • Increased blood flow to heart • Lower BP, cholesterol • Improved lung capacity • More efficient delivery of O2 rich blood to all parts of the body • Disease Management – hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, etc. • Weight control • Increased muscle mass • Increased metabolism • Decreased resting heart rate • Many, many more!

  8. PSCYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS * • Reduced anxiety and stress • Socialization • Ageless confidence • Thrill of competition • Many, many more!

  9. ADHERENCE & COMPLIANCE • 50% of those who start an exercise program quit within 6-months * • Inability to maintain an exercise program a major problem facing health related enterprises

  10. POSITIVE PREDICTORS * • Physical proximity • Spouse or other support • Small vs. large groups • Socioeconomic status • Intrinsic motivation

  11. NEGATIVE PREDICTORS * • Lack of time • Accessibility • Smoking • Poor choice of exercise • Injury • Type A personalities going too hard too soon

  12. IMPROVING ADHERENCE * • Client agrees to Behavioral Contract with Trainer • Keep objective records of program • Stimulus Cueing – exercising using the same activity at the same time and place every day • Set goals and record progress • Reinforce and reward when goals are met • Start at low intensity and gradually increase *

  13. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON MOOD & BEHAVIOR • Research supports reducing anxiety and depression • Running best for depression (withdrawal, inactivity, feeling hopeless and out of control) *

  14. BODY IMAGE • Body Image is how one views his/her body and how s/he believes others view his body * • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) – having unwanted ideas or impulses that repeatedly consume one’s mind. Don’t diagnose/watch for and refer * • Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) – preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect of a specific body part *

  15. COMMON EATING DISORDERS • Anorexia Nervosa – grossly underweight • Muscle Dysmorphia (reverse anorexia) – preoccupation of one’s overall body opposite of anorexia – see self as underweight and work out to get bigger; may be caused by use of steroids; excessive weight lifting and dieting; give up other activities to overwork; avoid exposure of body; clinically distressed over lack of muscle; overwork, diet and used ergogenics despite adverse effects *

  16. In summary…. • BDD = preoccupation with only one body part • AN = fear of being fat • MD = fear of being too small or inadequately muscled

  17. FUNCTIONAL STRENGTH * • Categories of functional strength • Lifting (kids, groceries, etc.) • Reaching (grab off shelf) • Balancing • Power (when needed) • Combinations of all the above

  18. KNOW!! • 5-Benefits of physical fitness • How exercise can affect your mood. • MD, AN and BDD definition and characteristics. • Definition of muscle strength. • Categories of functional strength. • List 3 examples of functional strength

  19. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL FITNESS & ASSESSMENT • A speed strength imbalance may be limiting factor in speed development; • Muscle balance testing to compare strength of opposing muscles helps prevent injury; • Guarantees max speed muscle contraction and relaxation

  20. LOWER BODY FUNCTIONAL STRENGTH TEST 1)Leg strength/body weight ratio indicates how easily you can get and move at high speeds • Good – 2.5:1 or leg press score 2.5 times body weight • Modify for leg strength if < 2.5

  21. Squat: most functional test to predict sprinting/jumping ability and Max Load (1RM) Good 1RM (heaviest weight one can lift one time) scores: * Males – 2 X Body Weight Females 1.5 X Body Weight

  22. 3) Hamstring/Quad Strength: record 1RM for each leg/curl/extension exercise; ÷ ext score by curl score; • Curl score s/b at least 80% of extension score • < 80% strengthen hamstrings • Ratio at east 75% to reduce risk of injury

  23. UPPER BODY: Bench Press: need for max upper body strength varies for sport; may not need to be tested. Good 1RM Scores: Male: 1.25 X Body Weight Female: .8 X Body Weight * Test muscle balance after functional strength (see page 12)

  24. FLEXIBILITY MYTHS • You must stretch into contorting yoga positions to be functionally flexible. FACT: Overstretching to contortion results when tendons are over stretched across joints; joints are loose/not as supportive • You should obtain functional flexibility through conventional stretches. * FACT: Conventional stretches are linear and isolated. Stretch tissue in a 3-D movement of the bone it connects and the joints and hinges it crosses for comprehensive and systematic skeletal range of motion.

  25. FUNCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY * • The ability of the individual parts of the skeleton to easily, freely and fluidly float through full range of motion without discomfort or pain

  26. SAMPLE EXERCISES FOR FUNCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY • Flex/release muscles with foam roller • Flex/Release using towel or strap • Pilates (full ROM) movements • Tai Chi/Yoga Make sure exercises challenge entire body!

  27. TESTING FOR FUNCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY • Sock Test: simulates putting on sock (see page 7); 0 = best, 3 = worst; • Finger-Tip to Floor: bend at hips and reach for floor; 20 cm or less (space between hands and floor) = normal functional flexibility *

  28. ASSESSING MUSCLE COORDINATION • DEF: Ability to use senses and body parts to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately; ability to move through complex set of movements; influenced by genetics, imagination, acquired skills and experience; improves with development * • Measure using hand/eye; foot/eye coordination; • BALL TOSS (one way to test): use small tennis sized ball, throw against wall and catch with other hand for two minutes – should get easier has hand-eye coordination improves *

  29. MUSCLE BALANCE/IMBALANCES Relationship between tone or strength and length of muscles around a joint * • Assess using stationary and dynamic strength; • Divide muscles into two groups: • Mobilizers – found close to surface crossing two joints; fast twitch fibers; power not endurance; get tight and short over time; high force; rapid ballistic movement, and • (2) Stabilizers: deep, crossing 1 joint; slow twitch fibers for endurance; get weak and long over time; assist posture and work against gravity

  30. Mobilizer Muscles * • Are located at the surface of the body • Cross two joints • Are made of fast twitch fibers produce power • Lack endurance • Assist rapid or ballistic movement and produce high force

  31. STABILIZER MUSCLES * • Situated deeper in body • Cross one joint • Slow twitch fibers for endurance • Become weak and long with time • Assist postural holding • Work against gravity

  32. Inhibition of Stabilizers and preferential recruitment of Mobilizers is central to the development of MUSCL IMBALANCE

  33. IMBALANCE results when M/S no longer work complimentary, M inhibits action of S and begin to move and try to stabilize on own. * • Dynamic Balance: balance during movement when balance is lost and regained (walking) * • Static Balance: balance without movement maintained under unfavorable conditions Test hamstrings (leg curl), Quads (leg extension), Arm curl, one arm military press and single leg press

  34. * • When measuring muscular balance for specific exercises in each limb, 1 RM scores should not differ by more than 10%

  35. How to test for functional strength for upper and lower body; • What Functional Flexibility is; • How to test FF (sock test); • Definition of Muscle Coordination; • Definition of Muscle Balance/Imbalance.

  36. Testing MUSCLE IMBALANCE * • The STORK test – static (see page 10) • Isokinetic Muscle/Joint Imbalance Testing – requires specialized machines (p. 10) • Postural Inspection: give quick screen of muscle strength and weakness


  38. POSTURAL ALIGNMENT • Position of body; the situation or disposition of the several parts of the body with respect to each other, or for a particular purpose. * • assessing posture helps identify muscle imbalance; optimal alignment helps: • Shock absorption • Weight acceptance • Promote energy transfer during mvmt • More efficient movement • ↓ fatigue • ↓ stress on joints • Prevention of overtraining/muscle imbalance

  39. QUICK POSTURE ASSESSMENT * • FRONT • Head tilt to one side? • Shoulders & hips level? • Are feet flat/knees collapsing? • SIDE • Does head jut forward? • Shoulders round or slouch forward? • Pelvis tilt forward or back causing excessive curvature or rounding of lower back?

  40. Hyperlordosis (swayback): extreme arch in lower back area; tight back/weak abs; * • Kyphsosis (hunchback): rounded shoulders, buttocks tucked under; upper back weak/chest tight; * • Flat Back: no normal curvature; do core and low back exercises;

  41. Supination: feet roll out; pain in joints and shins; wear cushioned, neutral shoes with no motion control; • Pronation: feet roll in causing knees to collapse in; tight posterior muscles and illiotibial band; use orthotic shoes; stretch hams, gastruc and outer hip; • Hyperextended knees: ligaments and tissue @ knees are loose; back sways (tight back, weak abs); leg looks bent backward; do knee strengthening and isometric yoga

  42. Know… • Definition of Postural Alignment • Definition of Ability • Agility Run Ratings • Definition of Speed • Procedures for Power • How to measure Reaction Time • Types of Skill • Pronation • Supination • Hyperextended Knees – condition where ligaments and connective tissue\res around the knee are too loose. Back sways causing tight back muscles and weak ab muscles

  43. FITNESS PERFORMANCE COMPONENTS AND MEASUREMENT • After foundational fitness is developed (5 basic components -cardiorespiratory, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility & body composition) more advanced training targeting performance can begin. • Focus on: • Agility • Speed • Power • Reaction Time • Skill

  44. AGILITY DEF: The ability to start, stop and move the body quickly in different directions * ILLINOIS Test: Set up course as described; time client through course and compare to chart on page 12. *

  45. SPEED • Definition: The ability to move the body quickly; the velocity at one which moves. * • Test with 30 m timed Sprint Test; measures ability to accelerate to full speed quickly and reaction time. * • Warm up completely (lite jog); stretch all major muscle groups. • Avoid heavy training day before (especially heavy weight training). • Do 3 trials and record best time; < 5 seconds = good; < 4 seconds = excellent • Test does not differentiate age and fitness ability.

  46. POWER • The ability to exert muscular strength quickly; * • Speed X Force = Power • Measure explosive power with Standing Long Jump; * • Warm up completely; avoid training day before (see page 14)

  47. REACTION TIME * • The ability to respond quickly to stimuli; • Most reaction time occurs at synapse between nerves and nerves & muscles; • Specificity: use test specific to sport • Dropped Ruler Test to measure (can be used for fun) * See page 15

  48. SKILL • Ability acquired by training; a task that can be performed well and reproduced on command * • Health related fitness emphasizes efficiency of the human body *; Skill related fitness is specific and usually related to sport * (know difference between skill and health related fitness)

  49. Motor Skill – movement and muscle control • Motor Perceptual – involves thought, interpretation and movement skills. • Methods to teach skill: video, verbal instructions, demonstration, photo sequences, diagrams, technique drills * • Assessing Skill Performance: compare visual feedback of client mvmt with a technical model of specific activity; Basics correct? Direction of mvmt and rhythm correct? Ask client for feedback; • Once assessed determine why inefficiencies are happening (client understanding, ability, poor physical abilities, poor physical coordination, power, lack of concentration, clothing and footwear; external factors (weather) *