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Using Curriculum-Based Measurement for Progress Monitoring in Math

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## Using Curriculum-Based Measurement for Progress Monitoring in Math

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**Using Curriculum-Based Measurement for Progress Monitoring**in Math Todd Busch Tracey Hall Pamela Stecker**Progress Monitoring**• Progress monitoring (PM) is conducted frequently and designed to: • Estimate rates of student improvement. • Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress. • Compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction and design more effective, individualized instructional programs for problem learners.**What Is the Difference Between Traditional Assessments and**Progress Monitoring? • Traditional Assessments: • Lengthy tests. • Not administered on a regular basis. • Teachers do not receive immediate feedback. • Student scores are based on national scores and averages and a teacher’s classroom may differ tremendously from the national student sample.**What Is the Difference Between Traditional Assessments and**Progress Monitoring? • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is one type of PM. • CBM provides an easy and quick method for gathering student progress. • Teachers can analyze student scores and adjust student goals and instructional programs. • Student data can be compared to teacher’s classroom or school district data.**Curriculum-Based Assessment**• Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA): • Measurement materials are aligned with school curriculum. • Measurement is frequent. • Assessment information is used to formulate instructional decisions. • CBM is one type of CBA.**Progress Monitoring**• Teachers assess students’ academic performance using brief measures on a frequent basis. • The main purposes are to: • Describe the rate of response to instruction. • Build more effective programs.**Focus of This Presentation**Curriculum-Based Measurement The scientifically validated form of progress monitoring.**Teachers Use Curriculum-Based Measurement To . . .**• Describe academic competence at a single point in time. • Quantify the rate at which students develop academic competence over time. • Build more effective programs to increase student achievement.**Curriculum-Based Measurement**• The result of 30 years of research • Used across the country • Demonstrates strong reliability, validity, and instructional utility**Research Shows . . .**• CBM produces accurate, meaningful information about students’ academic levels and their rates of improvement. • CBM is sensitive to student improvement. • CBM corresponds well with high-stakes tests. • When teachers use CBM to inform their instructional decisions, students achieve better.**Most Progress Monitoring: Mastery Measurement**Curriculum-Based Measurement is NOT Mastery Measurement**Mastery Measurement: Tracks Mastery of Short-Term**Instructional Objectives • To implement Mastery Measurement, the teacher: • Determines the sequence of skills in an instructional hierarchy. • Develops, for each skill, a criterion-referenced test.**Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum**1. Multidigit addition with regrouping 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit number 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit number 6. Division facts, divisors to nine 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit number 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers**Mastery of Multidigit Addition**Multidigit Subtraction Multidigit Addition 10 8 6 in 5 minutes Number of digits correct 4 2 0 4 8 10 12 14 6 2 WEEKS**Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum**1. Multidigit addition with regrouping 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit number 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit number 6. Division facts, divisors to nine 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit number 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers**Multidigit Subtraction Mastery Test**Date: Name: Subtracting 6 5 2 1 5 4 2 9 8 4 5 5 6 7 8 2 7 3 2 1 3 7 5 6 3 4 7 5 6 9 3 7 3 9 1 5 6 8 2 6 4 2 2 3 4 8 4 2 4 1 5 4 3 2 1 9 4 2 5 2 9 4 2 6 8 5 4 8 7 4**Mastery of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction**Multidigit Subtraction Multidigit Subtraction Multiplication Multiplication Multidigit Multidigit 10 10 Facts Facts Addition Addition 8 8 6 6 Number of problems correct in 5 minutes in 5 minutes Number of digits correct 4 4 2 2 0 0 4 4 8 8 10 10 12 12 14 14 6 6 2 2 WEEKS WEEKS**Problems with Mastery Measurement**• Hierarchy of skills is logical, not empirical. • Performance on single-skill assessments can be misleading. • Assessment does not reflect maintenance or generalization. • Assessment is designed by teachers or sold with textbooks, with unknown reliability and validity. • Number of objectives mastered does not relate well to performance on high-stakes tests.**Curriculum-Based Measurement Was Designed to Address These**Problems An Example of Curriculum-Based Measurement: Math Computation**Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum**1. Multidigit addition with regrouping 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit number 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit number 6. Division facts, divisors to nine 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit number 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers**Random numerals within problems**• Random placement of problem types on page**Computation 4**Sheet #2 Password: AIR Name: Date: A B C D E ) 5 5 2 2 8 8 5 5 2 2 9 ) 8 2 8 5 9 2 4 4 7 2 + + 6 6 4 4 7 7 0 0 8 8 4 3 0 4 x 0 9 0 + J F G H I ) 3 5 4 7 2 1 6 3 0 = x 7 4 x x 3 3 5 9 K L M N O 4 8 3 2 ) ) 5 6 5 3 1 6 3 0 - = 7 x x 2 3 6 P Q S T R 1 0 7 ) 4 1 6 5 3 2 9 6 + = 3 x 4 4 1 1 1 1 x 2 U V W X Y 1 5 0 4 1 1 3 0 ) 9 8 1 4 + 6 = 1 4 4 1 ) 5 1 0 2 7 x • Random numerals within problems • Random placement of problem types on page**One Page of a 3-Page CBM in Math Concepts and Applications**(24 Total Blanks)**Darker boxes equal a greater level of mastery.**Donald’s Graph and Skills Profile**Sampling Performance on Year-Long Curriculum for Each**Curriculum-Based Measurement . . . • Avoids the need to specify a skills hierarchy. • Avoids single-skill tests. • Automatically assesses maintenance/generalization. • Permits standardized procedures for sampling the curriculum, with known reliability and validity. • SO THAT: CBM scores relate well to performance on high-stakes tests.**Curriculum-Based Measurement’s Two Methods for**Representing Year-Long Performance Method 1: • Systematically sample items from the annual curriculum (illustrated in Math CBM, just presented). Method 2: • Identify a global behavior that simultaneously requires the many skills taught in the annual curriculum (illustrated in Reading CBM, presented next).**Hypothetical Second Grade Reading Curriculum**• Phonics • CVC patterns • CVCe patterns • CVVC patterns • Sight Vocabulary • Comprehension • Identification of who/what/when/where • Identification of main idea • Sequence of events • Fluency**Second Grade Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement**• Each week, every student reads aloud from a second grade passage for 1 minute. • Each week’s passage is the same difficulty. • As a student reads, the teacher marks the errors. • Count number of words read correctly. • Graph scores.**Curriculum-Based Measurement**• Not interested in making kids read faster. • Interested in kids becoming better readers. • The CBM score is an overall indicator of reading competence. • Students who score high on CBMs are better: • Decoders • At sight vocabulary • Comprehenders • Correlates highly with high-stakes tests.**What We Look for in Curriculum-Based Measurement**Increasing Scores: • Student is becoming a better reader. Flat Scores: • Student is not profiting from instruction and requires a change in the instructional program.**Sarah’s Progress on Words Read Correctly**Sarah Smith Reading 2 180 160 140 120 100 Words Read Correctly 80 60 40 20 0 Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May**Jessica’s Progress on Words Read Correctly**Jessica Jones Reading 2 180 160 140 120 100 Words Read Correctly 80 60 40 20 0 Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May**Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement**• Kindergarten: Letter sound fluency • First Grade: Word identification fluency • Grades 1–3: Passage reading fluency • Grades 1–6: Maze fluency**KindergartenLetter Sound Fluency**p U z L y • Teacher: Say the sound that goes with each letter. • Time: 1 minute i t R e w O a s d f v g j S h k m n b V Y E i c x …**First GradeWord Identification Fluency**• Teacher: Read these words. • Time: 1 minute**Grades 1–3 Passage Reading Fluency**• Number of words read aloud correctly in 1 minute on end-of-year passages.**Grades 1–6 Maze Fluency**• Number of words replaced correctly in 2.5 minutes on end-of-year passages from which every seventh word has been deleted and replaced with three choices.**Donald’s Progress on Words Selected Correctly for**Curriculum-Based Measurement Maze Task**Curriculum-Based Measurement**• CBM is distinctive. • Each CBM test is of equivalent difficulty. • Samples the year-long curriculum. • CBM is highly prescriptive and standardized. • Reliable and valid scores.**The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement**• CBM monitors student progress throughout the school year. • Students are given reading probes at regular intervals. • Weekly, biweekly, monthly • Teachers use student data to quantify short- and long-term goals that will meet end-of-year goals.**The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement**• CBM tests are brief and easy to administer. • All tests are different, but assess the same skills and difficulty level. • CBM scores are graphed for teachers to use to make decisions about instructional programs and teaching methods for each student.**Curriculum-Based Measurement Research**• CBM research has been conducted over the past 30 years. • Research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM for instructional decision making: • Students learn more. • Teacher decision making improves. • Students are more aware of their performance.**Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements**Step 1: How to Place Students in aMath Curriculum-BasedMeasurement Task forProgress Monitoring Step 2: How to Identify the Level ofMaterial for Monitoring Progress Step 3: How to Administer and ScoreMath Curriculum-BasedMeasurement Probes Step 4: How to Graph Scores**Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements**Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rulesto Graphed Scores to KnowWhen to Revise Programsand Increase Goals Step 7: How to Use the Curriculum-Based MeasurementDatabase Qualitatively toDescribe Students’ Strengthsand Weaknesses**Step 1: How to Place Students in a Math Curriculum-Based**Measurement Task for Progress Monitoring • Grades 1–6: • Computation • Grades 2–6: • Concepts and Applications • Kindergarten and first grade: • Number Identification • Quantity Discrimination • Missing Number