the tonga and the lozi l.
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800 AD: The earliest ancestors of the Tonga reached their present day location. early Tonga were farmers and fishermen who raised cattle and goats. ...

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the tonga
The Tonga

Image 1: Malawi Flag

Image 3: Zimbabwe Flag

Image 2: Zambia Flag

Image 4: Tanzania Flag

Image 5: Tonga with missionaries

tonga location and population
Tonga Location and Population
  • The Tonga are located in Northern Malawi, Eastern Zambia, Northern Zimbabwe and Southern Tanzania.
    • Location called “Butonga”
  • The Tonga population is about 10 million, most of whom reside in Zambia, where they make up 10 percent of population.

Image 6: Zambezi River Basin

tonga history
Tonga History
  • 800 AD: The earliest ancestors of the Tonga reached their present day location
    • early Tonga were farmers and fishermen who raised cattle and goats.
  • 1850: They were “discovered” by Dr. Charles Livingstone
    • They were living in small, scattered settlements
      • Had been raided by other tribes, including Kololo, Matabele and the Lozi
  • 1890s: split into three groups by BSA (British South Africa) Company, who were in control of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia)
    • Relegated to specific locations
  • 1964/1980 After Zambia and Zimbabwe gain their independence, BSA restrictions removed and Tonga people have more freedom of movement.

Image 7: Dr. Livingstone’s map of Africa

tonga language
Tonga Language
  • The Tonga speak Tonga, chiTonga, Citonga
    • the 'chi' prefix means 'the language of the‘.
    • Different dialects for different Tonga groups
    • most literature written in English

Image 8: A page from the bible in ChiTonga

tonga economy
Tonga Economy
  • mostly subsistence farmers
    • maize (main crop)
    • peanuts
    • millet
    • sorghum
    • vegetables
  • Main cash crop is cotton
  • On the plateau, many farmers have large herds of cattle, tractors
  • Urban Economy
    • 40 percent of Tonga live in cities
      • Work in commercial and service industries
  • As the costs of transportation and imports go up, “traditional” crafts such as blacksmithing, carpentry, pottery and basket-weaving are revived.

Image 9: Sorghum drying

tonga society
Tonga Society
  • Clan system
    • A clan is a group of several families connected by a common ancestor
      • Headed by husband
      • Matrilineal: descent traced through mother
  • Men
    • Build houses, hunt, herd cattle
  • Women
    • other farm work, pot/basket-making, child-rearing, marketplace attendance
    • Many Tonga women work in cities as domestic servants, shop assistants, etc.
    • Single mothers on the rise: laws treat widowers and divorcees unfairly

Image 10: Tonga woman

tonga religion
Tonga Religion
  • Mostly Christian, combined with traditional ideas
    • Christianity most likely introduced by missionaries in second half of 19th century
      • Visited 1850 by Livingstone, a missionary
  • Traditional Religion
    • creator god = Leza
    • venerate spirits of the dead and ancestors (mizimo)
    • Also worship basango: spirits with bigger influence (effect neighborhoods)
    • both mizimo and basango consulted on familial and communal matters by mediums
    • masabe: invasive spirits that attack/ posses people (Christian demons)
tonga art
Tonga Art
  • Skilled in basket and pottery making
  • Doors: now collected, believed to keep out bad spirits, carved from single piece of wood

Image 11: Tonga Basket

Image 12: Tonga Door

the lozi
The Lozi

Image 2: Zambia flag

Image 13: Lozi Children

Image 14: Mozambique flag

Image 3: Zimbabwe flag

lozi location and population
Lozi Location and Population
  • Most live on the floodplains of the Western Province of Zambia (380,000)
  • Others live in Mozambique (50,000) and Zimbabwe (10,000)
  • Over time, the Lozi have absorbed other groups (such as the Kwanda and Makoma)

Image 14: Lozi territory

lozi history
Lozi History
  • 1600s: The ancestors of the Lozi, the Luyi, migrated from what is now the DRC.
    • They were led by their queen Mwambwa, abd then her daughter, Mbuywamwambwa, then her son, Mboo, who became the first king (litunga) of the Lozi.
      • during Mboo’s reign, expanded and conquered other peoples.
  • Early 1700s: The Lozi were unified by the fourth litunga, Ngalama
    • Unification was completed by Mulambwa, who ruled from 1780 to 1830.
      • after Mulambwa’s death torn apart by civil war between sons, Silumelume and Mubukwanu, who won
        • before Mubukwanu could reunite the Lozi, they were attacked by Kololo, who ruled from 1840 to 1864,
          • They were defeated by exiled Lozi leader, Sipopa.
  • 1890/1900: BSA Company takes over.
  • 1964: Zambian independence
lozi language
Lozi Language
  • Before 1840, the Lozi spoke Luyana.
  • Although the Kololo only ruled for 24 years, they had a lasting impact, especially linguistically
    • Now the Lozi speak Kololo, a dialect of Sothos, which is in the Bantu family.
lozi economy
Lozi Economy
  • Mostly subsistence farming
    • Done with hoes, not plows
    • crops
      • Millet
      • Cassava
      • Sorghum
      • maize
      • Some fruits and vegetables (melons, beans, potatoes)
  • Livestock: sheep, goats, poultry, cattle.
  • Hunting, gathering, fishing also supplemental to lifestyle

Image 15: Lozi Fisherman

lozi society
Lozi Society
  • Bilateral lineage with slight patrilineal bias
  • Polygamous
    • Head wife lives with husband, other wives have own house, garden, livestock.
  • Villages
    • Circular arrangement of cottages forming an open enclosure, sometimes used for cattle
  • Men: Responsible for livestock, hunting, most of the fishing, and the laborious agricultural tasks
    • Also responsible for extracting iron ore from riverbeds and ironworking
  • Women: most agricultural work and gathering, a little fishing, and domestic chores

Image 16: Lozi women

lozi politics
Lozi Politics
  • The Litunga is the overall ruler of the Lozi Kingdom
    • Based in Lealui
    • Junior kings, chiefs village headmen
    • Princess Chief:
      • Mulena Mukawe based in Nalolo
      • Rules over south
  • Various Councils check and balance
  • British replaced with a system of districts and provinces
    • Litunga, etc, retain title and respect but little power
    • Today, Litunga has no power
      • Zambia trying to forge national, not ethnic identity.

Image 17: the current Litunga, Lubosi II

lozi religion
Lozi Religion
  • Monotheistic
    • supreme being Nyambe
  • Diviners
    • Like doctors
    • Use frenzied dancing to cure patients
  • Respect for ancestors and past rulers
    • Burial
      • Men face east, women face west
      • Buried with possessions
      • After death spirit goes to “halfway house”
        • Must have correct makings and piercings.
  • Main festival is Kuomboka, the move of the Litunga from lower to higher ground during flooding of Zambezi

Image 18: the most recent Kuomboka

lozi art
Lozi Art
  • Music, dance, drumming very important
    • Folktales, through song
    • Musicians perform at king’s court.
    • Drums used: kettle, friction, small tube-shaped, and war drums, marimbas, the kangomhbro or zanza,
    • String and reed instruments also used
    • In all ceremonies, including Kuomboka
      • Ngomalume is the royal dance.
  • Famous for hand-woven products
    • Baskets, mats, trays

Image 19: a Lozi Basket