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800 AD: The earliest ancestors of the Tonga reached their present day location. early Tonga were farmers and fishermen who raised cattle and goats. ...

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The tonga and the lozi l.jpg

The Tonga and the Lozi

Christine Ryan

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The tonga l.jpg
The Tonga

Image 1: Malawi Flag

Image 3: Zimbabwe Flag

Image 2: Zambia Flag

Image 4: Tanzania Flag

Image 5: Tonga with missionaries

Tonga location and population l.jpg
Tonga Location and Population

  • The Tonga are located in Northern Malawi, Eastern Zambia, Northern Zimbabwe and Southern Tanzania.

    • Location called “Butonga”

  • The Tonga population is about 10 million, most of whom reside in Zambia, where they make up 10 percent of population.

Image 6: Zambezi River Basin

Tonga history l.jpg
Tonga History

  • 800 AD: The earliest ancestors of the Tonga reached their present day location

    • early Tonga were farmers and fishermen who raised cattle and goats.

  • 1850: They were “discovered” by Dr. Charles Livingstone

    • They were living in small, scattered settlements

      • Had been raided by other tribes, including Kololo, Matabele and the Lozi

  • 1890s: split into three groups by BSA (British South Africa) Company, who were in control of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia)

    • Relegated to specific locations

  • 1964/1980 After Zambia and Zimbabwe gain their independence, BSA restrictions removed and Tonga people have more freedom of movement.

Image 7: Dr. Livingstone’s map of Africa

Tonga language l.jpg
Tonga Language

  • The Tonga speak Tonga, chiTonga, Citonga

    • the 'chi' prefix means 'the language of the‘.

    • Different dialects for different Tonga groups

    • most literature written in English

Image 8: A page from the bible in ChiTonga

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Tonga Economy

  • mostly subsistence farmers

    • maize (main crop)

    • peanuts

    • millet

    • sorghum

    • vegetables

  • Main cash crop is cotton

  • On the plateau, many farmers have large herds of cattle, tractors

  • Urban Economy

    • 40 percent of Tonga live in cities

      • Work in commercial and service industries

  • As the costs of transportation and imports go up, “traditional” crafts such as blacksmithing, carpentry, pottery and basket-weaving are revived.

Image 9: Sorghum drying

Tonga society l.jpg
Tonga Society

  • Clan system

    • A clan is a group of several families connected by a common ancestor

      • Headed by husband

      • Matrilineal: descent traced through mother

  • Men

    • Build houses, hunt, herd cattle

  • Women

    • other farm work, pot/basket-making, child-rearing, marketplace attendance

    • Many Tonga women work in cities as domestic servants, shop assistants, etc.

    • Single mothers on the rise: laws treat widowers and divorcees unfairly

Image 10: Tonga woman

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Tonga Religion

  • Mostly Christian, combined with traditional ideas

    • Christianity most likely introduced by missionaries in second half of 19th century

      • Visited 1850 by Livingstone, a missionary

  • Traditional Religion

    • creator god = Leza

    • venerate spirits of the dead and ancestors (mizimo)

    • Also worship basango: spirits with bigger influence (effect neighborhoods)

    • both mizimo and basango consulted on familial and communal matters by mediums

    • masabe: invasive spirits that attack/ posses people (Christian demons)

Tonga art l.jpg
Tonga Art

  • Skilled in basket and pottery making

  • Doors: now collected, believed to keep out bad spirits, carved from single piece of wood

Image 11: Tonga Basket

Image 12: Tonga Door

The lozi l.jpg
The Lozi

Image 2: Zambia flag

Image 13: Lozi Children

Image 14: Mozambique flag

Image 3: Zimbabwe flag

Lozi location and population l.jpg
Lozi Location and Population

  • Most live on the floodplains of the Western Province of Zambia (380,000)

  • Others live in Mozambique (50,000) and Zimbabwe (10,000)

  • Over time, the Lozi have absorbed other groups (such as the Kwanda and Makoma)

Image 14: Lozi territory

Lozi history l.jpg
Lozi History

  • 1600s: The ancestors of the Lozi, the Luyi, migrated from what is now the DRC.

    • They were led by their queen Mwambwa, abd then her daughter, Mbuywamwambwa, then her son, Mboo, who became the first king (litunga) of the Lozi.

      • during Mboo’s reign, expanded and conquered other peoples.

  • Early 1700s: The Lozi were unified by the fourth litunga, Ngalama

    • Unification was completed by Mulambwa, who ruled from 1780 to 1830.

      • after Mulambwa’s death torn apart by civil war between sons, Silumelume and Mubukwanu, who won

        • before Mubukwanu could reunite the Lozi, they were attacked by Kololo, who ruled from 1840 to 1864,

          • They were defeated by exiled Lozi leader, Sipopa.

  • 1890/1900: BSA Company takes over.

  • 1964: Zambian independence

Lozi language l.jpg
Lozi Language

  • Before 1840, the Lozi spoke Luyana.

  • Although the Kololo only ruled for 24 years, they had a lasting impact, especially linguistically

    • Now the Lozi speak Kololo, a dialect of Sothos, which is in the Bantu family.

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Lozi Economy

  • Mostly subsistence farming

    • Done with hoes, not plows

    • crops

      • Millet

      • Cassava

      • Sorghum

      • maize

      • Some fruits and vegetables (melons, beans, potatoes)

  • Livestock: sheep, goats, poultry, cattle.

  • Hunting, gathering, fishing also supplemental to lifestyle

Image 15: Lozi Fisherman

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Lozi Society

  • Bilateral lineage with slight patrilineal bias

  • Polygamous

    • Head wife lives with husband, other wives have own house, garden, livestock.

  • Villages

    • Circular arrangement of cottages forming an open enclosure, sometimes used for cattle

  • Men: Responsible for livestock, hunting, most of the fishing, and the laborious agricultural tasks

    • Also responsible for extracting iron ore from riverbeds and ironworking

  • Women: most agricultural work and gathering, a little fishing, and domestic chores

Image 16: Lozi women

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Lozi Politics

  • The Litunga is the overall ruler of the Lozi Kingdom

    • Based in Lealui

    • Junior kings, chiefs village headmen

    • Princess Chief:

      • Mulena Mukawe based in Nalolo

      • Rules over south

  • Various Councils check and balance

  • British replaced with a system of districts and provinces

    • Litunga, etc, retain title and respect but little power

    • Today, Litunga has no power

      • Zambia trying to forge national, not ethnic identity.

Image 17: the current Litunga, Lubosi II

Lozi religion l.jpg
Lozi Religion

  • Monotheistic

    • supreme being Nyambe

  • Diviners

    • Like doctors

    • Use frenzied dancing to cure patients

  • Respect for ancestors and past rulers

    • Burial

      • Men face east, women face west

      • Buried with possessions

      • After death spirit goes to “halfway house”

        • Must have correct makings and piercings.

  • Main festival is Kuomboka, the move of the Litunga from lower to higher ground during flooding of Zambezi

Image 18: the most recent Kuomboka

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Lozi Art

  • Music, dance, drumming very important

    • Folktales, through song

    • Musicians perform at king’s court.

    • Drums used: kettle, friction, small tube-shaped, and war drums, marimbas, the kangomhbro or zanza,

    • String and reed instruments also used

    • In all ceremonies, including Kuomboka

      • Ngomalume is the royal dance.

  • Famous for hand-woven products

    • Baskets, mats, trays

Image 19: a Lozi Basket