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800 AD: The earliest ancestors of the Tonga reached their present day location. early Tonga were farmers and fishermen who raised cattle and goats. ...

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The tonga and the lozi l.jpg

The Tonga and the Lozi

Christine Ryan


Outline l.jpg

Tonga

Location

History

Language

Economy

Society

Religion

Art

Lozi

Location

History

Language

Economy

Society

Politics

Religion

Art

Outline


The tonga l.jpg
The Tonga

Image 1: Malawi Flag

Image 3: Zimbabwe Flag

Image 2: Zambia Flag

Image 4: Tanzania Flag

Image 5: Tonga with missionaries


Tonga location and population l.jpg
Tonga Location and Population

  • The Tonga are located in Northern Malawi, Eastern Zambia, Northern Zimbabwe and Southern Tanzania.

    • Location called “Butonga”

  • The Tonga population is about 10 million, most of whom reside in Zambia, where they make up 10 percent of population.

Image 6: Zambezi River Basin


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Tonga History

  • 800 AD: The earliest ancestors of the Tonga reached their present day location

    • early Tonga were farmers and fishermen who raised cattle and goats.

  • 1850: They were “discovered” by Dr. Charles Livingstone

    • They were living in small, scattered settlements

      • Had been raided by other tribes, including Kololo, Matabele and the Lozi

  • 1890s: split into three groups by BSA (British South Africa) Company, who were in control of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia)

    • Relegated to specific locations

  • 1964/1980 After Zambia and Zimbabwe gain their independence, BSA restrictions removed and Tonga people have more freedom of movement.

Image 7: Dr. Livingstone’s map of Africa


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Tonga Language

  • The Tonga speak Tonga, chiTonga, Citonga

    • the 'chi' prefix means 'the language of the‘.

    • Different dialects for different Tonga groups

    • most literature written in English

Image 8: A page from the bible in ChiTonga


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Tonga Economy

  • mostly subsistence farmers

    • maize (main crop)

    • peanuts

    • millet

    • sorghum

    • vegetables

  • Main cash crop is cotton

  • On the plateau, many farmers have large herds of cattle, tractors

  • Urban Economy

    • 40 percent of Tonga live in cities

      • Work in commercial and service industries

  • As the costs of transportation and imports go up, “traditional” crafts such as blacksmithing, carpentry, pottery and basket-weaving are revived.

Image 9: Sorghum drying


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Tonga Society

  • Clan system

    • A clan is a group of several families connected by a common ancestor

      • Headed by husband

      • Matrilineal: descent traced through mother

  • Men

    • Build houses, hunt, herd cattle

  • Women

    • other farm work, pot/basket-making, child-rearing, marketplace attendance

    • Many Tonga women work in cities as domestic servants, shop assistants, etc.

    • Single mothers on the rise: laws treat widowers and divorcees unfairly

Image 10: Tonga woman


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Tonga Religion

  • Mostly Christian, combined with traditional ideas

    • Christianity most likely introduced by missionaries in second half of 19th century

      • Visited 1850 by Livingstone, a missionary

  • Traditional Religion

    • creator god = Leza

    • venerate spirits of the dead and ancestors (mizimo)

    • Also worship basango: spirits with bigger influence (effect neighborhoods)

    • both mizimo and basango consulted on familial and communal matters by mediums

    • masabe: invasive spirits that attack/ posses people (Christian demons)


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Tonga Art

  • Skilled in basket and pottery making

  • Doors: now collected, believed to keep out bad spirits, carved from single piece of wood

Image 11: Tonga Basket

Image 12: Tonga Door


The lozi l.jpg
The Lozi

Image 2: Zambia flag

Image 13: Lozi Children

Image 14: Mozambique flag

Image 3: Zimbabwe flag


Lozi location and population l.jpg
Lozi Location and Population

  • Most live on the floodplains of the Western Province of Zambia (380,000)

  • Others live in Mozambique (50,000) and Zimbabwe (10,000)

  • Over time, the Lozi have absorbed other groups (such as the Kwanda and Makoma)

Image 14: Lozi territory


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Lozi History

  • 1600s: The ancestors of the Lozi, the Luyi, migrated from what is now the DRC.

    • They were led by their queen Mwambwa, abd then her daughter, Mbuywamwambwa, then her son, Mboo, who became the first king (litunga) of the Lozi.

      • during Mboo’s reign, expanded and conquered other peoples.

  • Early 1700s: The Lozi were unified by the fourth litunga, Ngalama

    • Unification was completed by Mulambwa, who ruled from 1780 to 1830.

      • after Mulambwa’s death torn apart by civil war between sons, Silumelume and Mubukwanu, who won

        • before Mubukwanu could reunite the Lozi, they were attacked by Kololo, who ruled from 1840 to 1864,

          • They were defeated by exiled Lozi leader, Sipopa.

  • 1890/1900: BSA Company takes over.

  • 1964: Zambian independence


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Lozi Language

  • Before 1840, the Lozi spoke Luyana.

  • Although the Kololo only ruled for 24 years, they had a lasting impact, especially linguistically

    • Now the Lozi speak Kololo, a dialect of Sothos, which is in the Bantu family.


Lozi economy l.jpg
Lozi Economy

  • Mostly subsistence farming

    • Done with hoes, not plows

    • crops

      • Millet

      • Cassava

      • Sorghum

      • maize

      • Some fruits and vegetables (melons, beans, potatoes)

  • Livestock: sheep, goats, poultry, cattle.

  • Hunting, gathering, fishing also supplemental to lifestyle

Image 15: Lozi Fisherman


Lozi society l.jpg
Lozi Society

  • Bilateral lineage with slight patrilineal bias

  • Polygamous

    • Head wife lives with husband, other wives have own house, garden, livestock.

  • Villages

    • Circular arrangement of cottages forming an open enclosure, sometimes used for cattle

  • Men: Responsible for livestock, hunting, most of the fishing, and the laborious agricultural tasks

    • Also responsible for extracting iron ore from riverbeds and ironworking

  • Women: most agricultural work and gathering, a little fishing, and domestic chores

Image 16: Lozi women


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Lozi Politics

  • The Litunga is the overall ruler of the Lozi Kingdom

    • Based in Lealui

    • Junior kings, chiefs village headmen

    • Princess Chief:

      • Mulena Mukawe based in Nalolo

      • Rules over south

  • Various Councils check and balance

  • British replaced with a system of districts and provinces

    • Litunga, etc, retain title and respect but little power

    • Today, Litunga has no power

      • Zambia trying to forge national, not ethnic identity.

Image 17: the current Litunga, Lubosi II


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Lozi Religion

  • Monotheistic

    • supreme being Nyambe

  • Diviners

    • Like doctors

    • Use frenzied dancing to cure patients

  • Respect for ancestors and past rulers

    • Burial

      • Men face east, women face west

      • Buried with possessions

      • After death spirit goes to “halfway house”

        • Must have correct makings and piercings.

  • Main festival is Kuomboka, the move of the Litunga from lower to higher ground during flooding of Zambezi

Image 18: the most recent Kuomboka


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Lozi Art

  • Music, dance, drumming very important

    • Folktales, through song

    • Musicians perform at king’s court.

    • Drums used: kettle, friction, small tube-shaped, and war drums, marimbas, the kangomhbro or zanza,

    • String and reed instruments also used

    • In all ceremonies, including Kuomboka

      • Ngomalume is the royal dance.

  • Famous for hand-woven products

    • Baskets, mats, trays

Image 19: a Lozi Basket