Nutrition for the Foodservice Professional Developing Healthy Menus Virginia Stipp Lawrence, MHM
Welcome! • Topic Presentations • Nutrition Fair Recipe is Due Today
Healthy Menus • Step 1: Foundations: Flavor • Step 2: Healthy Cooking Methods andTechniques • Step 3: Presentation
A balanced and moderate meal will generally have no more than: • 30% of its total kcal from fat, including 10% or less of total kcal from saturated & trans fat. • 150 milligrams of cholesterol. • 1000 milligrams or less of sodium. • 15% or less of its total kcal from protein. • 55% of its total kcal from carbohydrates (10% or less from simple carbohydrates.
To develop healthy menu items: • Use existing items on your menu. • Modify existing items to make them more nutritious. • Create new selections.
Is the menu item tasty? Does the menu item blend with/complement the menu? Does the menu items meet the food habits/preferences of the guests? Is the food cost appropriate for the price being charged? Does each menu item require a reasonable amount of prep time? Is there a balance of color? Is there a balance of textures? Is there a balance of shape? Are flavors varied? Are the food combinations acceptable? Are cooking methods varied? Can each menu item be prepared properly by the cooking staff? Menu Planning Considerations
Step 1: Foundations: Flavor • Seasonings: Substances used in cooking to bring out a flavor already present. • Flavorings – Substances used in cooking to add a new flavor or modify the original flavor. The difference between them is one of degree.
Herbs & Spices • Herbs: The leafy part of certain plants that grow in temperature climates • Spices: The roots, bark, seeds, flower, buds, and fruits of certain tropical plants.
Pepper: black, white, green Basil Oregano Tarragon Rosemary Dill and mustard Paprika Chili powder Curry powder Cinnamon Nutmeg Mace Ginger Mint Blends Italian: basil, oregano, garlic, onion Asian: ginger, 5 spices, garlic, scallion Herbs and Spices
Flavor • Juices • Vinegars and oils • Stock • Rubs and marinades • Aromatic vegetables
Flavor • Sauce Alternatives • Vegetable Purees • Coulis – Sauce made of a puree of vegetables or fruits. • Salsa and Relishes- Chunky mixtures of vegetables and/or fruits and flavor ingredients. • Chutney – Sauce from India made with fruits, vegetables, and herbs. • Compote – Fruit cooked in syrup and flavored with spices or liqueur. • Mojo – Spicy Caribbean sauce.
Flavor • Alcoholic beverages • Extracts and oils
Fresh herbs Toasted spices Herb and spice blends Freshly ground pepper Citrus juices and reductions Strong-flavored oils, vinegars, and vinaigrettes Infused vinegars and oils Wines Reduced stock (glazes) Rubs and marinades Raw, roasted, sautéed garlic Caramelized onions Roasted bell peppers Chili peppers Grilled or oven-roasted vegetables Coulis, salsa, relish, chutney, mojos Dried foods: tomatoes, cherries, cranberries Fruit and vegetable purees Horseradish Dijon mustard Extracts Powerhouses of Flavor
Step 2: Healthy Cooking Methods & Techniques • Reduction • Searing • Deglazing • Sweating • Pureeing
Dry-Heat Cooking Methods Roasting Broiling and Grilling Sauté and Dry Sauté Stir-frying Moist-Heat Cooking Methods Simmering Steaming Poaching Braising or stewing Microwaving Step 2: Healthy Cooking Methods & Techniques
Steps 3: Presentation • Height • Color • Shape • Layout • Garnish
Chef’s Tips For Appetizers • Appetizers may be sized-down entrees. • Use ingredients such as wonton skins and rice paper to make a wide variety of appetizers. Stuff these wrapping with fillings such as spiced butternut squash. • Add color to appetizers with dried beet chips. • Creative sauces and relishes help sell appetizers.
Chef’s Tips for Soups • Strain soups such as broccoli through a large-holed china cap to remove fibers. • Puree bean soups to get a consistent product, then strain to remove skins. • Rice and potatoes work well as thickeners. • Replace ham in bean beans with smoked chilies, smoked turkey, or veal bacon. • Garnish soups with an ingredient of the soup.
Chef’s Tips for Salads and Dressings • Use fresh, high-quality ingredients. • Choose ingredients for compatibility of flavors, textures, and colors. • Vegetables go well with dressings having an acid taste such as vinegar or lemon. • Try legumes in salads. • Decorate the salad plate with reduced beet juice. • Plan your presentation carefully.
Chef’s Tips for Entrées • A 3- to 4-ounce cooked portion is enough for meat, poultry, and fish. • Use bulgur to extend ground meat. • Fish is very versatile and nutritious. • Think color and flavor when picking legumes. • When using cheese, use a small amount of a strong cheese such as gorgonzola. • Create new fillings for pasta.
Chef’s Tips for Side Dishes • When using veggies, think about what’s in season and how the dish will look and taste. Also, think variety. Be adventurous. • Add grains to vegetable dishes, such as brown rice with stir-fried vegetables. • Serve grains and beans. • Salads can often be used as side dishes.
Chef’s Tips for Desserts • To make sorbet without sugar, simply puree and strain the fruits. • Use angel food cake as a base to build a dessert. Serve with pear and ginger compote. • Stuff phyllo or bake it in a muffin pan and fill with sautéed apples. • Serve fruit as a compote.
Chef’s Tips for Breakfast • For color and flavor, serve an omelet with spicy vegetable relish on top of it, or place the omelet in a grilled blue corn tortilla and serve with salsa roja. • Provide balanced, healthful, and flavorful breakfasts. • Offer freshly squeezed juices.
Next Week • Tofu Lab with Shen Womack • Read Handout available on web • Vitamin and Mineral Study is Due • Nutrition Fair Needs is Due