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Between institutions and individuals: media influence v. interpretation and use ... media via computers. Convergence also refers to newspaper, broadcast, and internet ...

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media in the social world
Media in the Social World


Media messages and products

Social World


Media Industries

Campbell Chapter 1

structure and agency
Structure and Agency
  • Social Relationships
    • Between institutions
    • Within institutions
    • Between institutions and individuals

Structure: recurring patterns of social relationships

Agency: intentional and undetermined human action

Campbell Chapter 1

structure and agency in media
Structure and Agency in Media
  • Social Relationships
    • Between institutions: non-media and media
    • Within institutions: how is media content produced
    • Between institutions and individuals: media influence v. interpretation and use

Campbell Chapter 1



Communication (linear v. cultural)Creating symbols systems

Culture Common symbols

Mass Communication Communication to large audiences

Mass Media Culture industries based on technology

Campbell Chapter 1

development of media

Development of Media

Print (Books, Newspapers, Magazines)

Electronic by wire (telegraph, telephone)

Physical/Chemical ( phonograph, film)

Electronic by electromagnetism (radio, television, satellite)

Convergence: Cable Television Analog to Digital Specific Industries to Conglomeration

Campbell Chapter 1

digital and converged
Digital and Converged
  • Digital converts information (letters, images, sounds) into binary code…0’s and 1’s…the language of computers.
  • Once digital, information can be shared among different media much more easily.
  • Convergence refers, in part, to the digital marriage of different media via computers.
  • Convergence also refers to newspaper, broadcast, and internet outlets under one corporate roof.

Campbell Chapter 1

cultural contexts
Cultural Contexts
  • Cultural institutions/cultural industries:
    • Media (news/entertainment)
    • Schools
    • Art
    • Law
    • Politics?
  • News-delivery technologies
    • the new overlaps the old
    • the old struggles to retain vitality

Campbell Chapter 1

shifting values
Shifting values
  • Among the four values of the modern period:
    • Individuality
    • Confidence in reason and science
    • Working efficiently
    • Rejecting tradition
  • Postmodern culture (present) changes modern values

Campbell Chapter 1

postmodern values
Postmodern values
  • Four features of the Postmodern:
    • Opposing hierarchy
    • Diversifying and recycling culture
    • Doubts about scientific reasoning
    • Embracing paradox
    • …but loves technology

Campbell Chapter 1

culture as skyscraper jackson lears p 12

Culture as Skyscraper--Jackson Lears p. 12

“Culture..was becoming increasingly organized during the twentieth century. And the model for that organization was the hierarchical, bureaucratic corporation.

Campbell Chapter 1

opera vs folk music
Opera vs. Folk Music
  • Some who like Tosca also like “Oh Brother Where Art Thou”.
  • Does Sir Elton John rip off Aida?
  • Do popular media steal the classics?
    • Virginia Woolf said yes.
    • Vachel Lindsey said no.
  • Oprah and her “reading list”
  • Do the media show us who we are?

Campbell Chapter 1

media ethics
Media Ethics
  • Herbert Gans:
    • High culture
    • Low culture
    • Different media for each
    • But many people consume both
  • Is Jerry Springer “ethical”?
  • Is the New York Times ethical?
  • Corporate truth: ethics and law differ

Campbell Chapter 1

the media storytellers
The Media Storytellers
  • Events must be transformed into stories.
  • Stories play by rules:
    • beginning
    • conflict
    • ending
  • In crisis lies chaos, and facts are hard to get.
  • But reporters must tell a story…
  • Now!

Campbell Chapter 1

media literacy
Media Literacy
  • Critical approach, not cynical pose
  • Pay close attention
  • Analysis of facts, not mere counting of facts
  • Interpretation and meaning
  • Ethical/moral evaluation of meaning

Campbell Chapter 1