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3D tree visualizations. Pseudo 2D tree visualizations. Constituent ... John found the letter and Bill signed the letter. I gave a book to Mary and gave a letter to Sue. I gave a ...

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cmc cc a information visualization

CMC/CC AInformation Visualization

Master IK, CIW, MMI

L.M. Bosveld-de Smet

Mon. 20/11/06; 16.00-18.00

information visualization for the general public
Information visualizationfor the general public
  • IV is moving out of research laboratories
  • IV is reaching users
  • Examples:
information visualization tools
Information Visualization Tools
  • IV is still a novelty for many users
  • Potential and limitations
  • Reports of usability studies and controlled experiments
    • Faster task completion
    • Reduced error rates
  • Measurable benefits
  • Current evaluation practices
current evaluation practices plaisant 2004
Current evaluation practicesPlaisant (2004)
  • Controlled experiments comparing design elements
  • Usability evaluation of a tool
  • Controlled experiments comparing two or more tools
  • Case studies of tools in realistic settings
three tree visualization tools
Three tree visualization tools
  • SpaceTree
  • Hyperbolic
  • Window Explorer
  • Matching tools with users, tasks and real problems
  • Improving user testing
  • Addressing universal usability
users tasks and real problems controlled experiment
Users, tasks and real problemsControlled experiment
  • Users: linguists with more or less knowledge of a specific domain
  • Task domain: linguistics, esp. syntax
  • Real problems:
    • Are users able to identify constituents, dominance relations?
    • Do users see that constituents are coordinated, are in comparable positions?
  • Research question: Which visualizations are suitable for representing “3D natural language phenomena”?
    • 2D tree visualizations
    • 3D tree visualizations
    • Pseudo 2D tree visualizations
  • In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.
  • A constituent is a string of words such that there is one node that dominates those words and no other words.
    • Sam climbed up the ladder. 
    • Sam picked up the ladder. 
coordination and movement tests
Coordination and movement tests
  • Applying the coordination test 
    • Sam climbed [up the ladder] and [out the window].
    • *Sam picked [up a ladder] and [out some new boots].
  • Applying the movement test
    • [Up the ladder] Sam climbed.
    • *[Up a ladder] Sam picked.
  • Coordination involves the syntactic linking of two or more elements of equal status:
    • [John] and [Mary]
    • [up] and [down]
    • David [sings] and [plays guitar]
coordination and conjunction reduction
Coordination and conjunction reduction
  • John found the letter and Bill signed the letter.
  • John found the letter and Bill signed the letter.
  • I gave a book to Mary and gave a letter to Sue.
  • I gave a book to Mary and gave a letter to Sue.
right node raising
Right Node Raising
  • SYNTAX: operation of reduction on coordinated clauses whose rightmost constituents are identical.
  • EXAMPLE: Right Node Raising derives the structure in b from the underlying structure in a by adjoining one copy of the identical constituents (the book) to the right of the sentence, and deleting the identical originals (indicated by e).
    • a [[John saw the book] and [Bill bought the book]]
    • b [[John saw ei ] and [Bill bought ei ]] the booki
the 3d phenomena in dutch
The 3D phenomena in Dutch
  • Coordination
    • De directeur bevordert Jansen of de Boer of de Vries.
    • Zowel de zusjes Jansen als Joop en Klaas spijbelden.
  • Right Node Raising
    • Joop haat, Piet bewondert, en Klaas verafgoodt partijleider Bos.
    • Ik constateer dat Jansen een boek, Vos een CD en de Boer een plant koopt.
  • Non-constituent Right Node Raising
    • Joop wil voor, maar Piet na het ontbijt douchen.
    • Jansen heeft drie en de Boer heeft vier doelpunten gemaakt.
the visualization types
The visualization types
  • 2D tree
  • 2D tree + meaningful color
  • 3D tree
  • 3D tree + meaningful color
  • Pseudo 3D: D-plane
syntactic analysis coordination
Syntactic analysiscoordination
  • Voor nevenschikking maken we gebruik van een zogenaamde coördinatorgroep (CoP). In een haakjesstructuur:[CoP XP1 [Co' Co XP2]]
  • bv. Jan en Piet. Hierin is XP1 nevengeschikt aan XP2.(Voor de duidelijkheid: XP1 is Jan, Co is en, XP2 is Piet.)
visualization assignment beyond tree structures
Visualization assignmentBeyond tree structures
  • What are other possible (non tree) visualizations for “3D natural language phenomena”?