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introduction to web services

Introduction to Web Services

Bina Ramamurthy

This work is partially supported by

NSF-DUE-CCLI-A&I Grant 0311473

topics for discussion
Topics for Discussion
  • Webservices and Service Oriented Architectures (SOA)
  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
  • WS (Web Services)
  • Summary
web services and soa
Web Services and SOA
  • Web Services is a technology that allows for applications to communicate with each other in a standard format.
  • A Web Service exposes an interface that can be accessed through XML messaging.
  • A Web service uses XML based protocol to describe an operation or the data exchange with another web service. Ex: SOAP
  • A group of web services collaborating accomplish the tasks of an application. The architecture of such an application is called Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA).
soa in real world report in infoworld may 2 2005 issue 18
SOA in Real World: Report in InfoWorld, May 2, 2005 Issue 18
  • State of Massachusetts uses SOA to deliver healthcare services. With HTML web application it had no control of look and feel and handling many hospitals. With SOAP based messaging they can easily handle different systems, billing systems, medical records systems etc. Use Microsoft-based systems.
  • Countrywide financial simplifies lending: IBM Websphere based SOA is used to deliver services.
  • Guardian Life Insurance uses SOA: IBM websphere based services. Uses EJB for business logic.
  • British Telecom uses combination of BEA systems and Microsoft’s Connected Services Framework. Billing backend and operational support for the organization are web services. Legacy systems are enabled as web services.
  • provides WS API for developers to implement applications leveraging their architecture and data.
  • XML is a markup language, developed by W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), mainly to overcome the limitations of HTML.
  • But it took a life of its own and has become a very popular part of distributed systems.
  • We will examine its definition, associated specifications (DTD, XSLT etc.), Java APIs available to process XML, protocols and services based on XML, and the role XML plays in a distributed computing environment.
xml processing models
XML Processing Models
  • XML Input Processing
  • Business Logic Handling
  • XML Output Processing





XML output

XML input

xml input processing
XML input Processing
  • Processing and validating the source document
  • Recognizing/searching for relevant information based on its location or its tagging in the source document
  • Extracting relevant information once it has been located
  • Mapping/binding retrieved information to business objects
xml processing technologies
XML Processing Technologies
  • SAX, Simple API for XML
  • DOM, Document Object Model API from W3C
  • XSLT, XML Style Sheets Language Transformations from W3C
  • XPath, the XML Path Language from W3C
  • Other third party APIs.
apache ant tool
Apache Ant Tool
  • Ant tool is an XML based build tool.
  • Ant requires its config files to be specified in XML format.
  • Config file build.xml has general commands for ant tool.
  • Ant tool is used for build, deploy, and run java applications.
  • See these tutorial for more information on ant:



Ant Book Chapter:

xml to soap
  • Simple xml can facilitate sending message to receive information.
  • The message could be operations to be performed on objects.
  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
soap request
SOAP Request

<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="">


<getProductDetails xmlns="">





soap reply
SOAP Reply

<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="">


<getProductDetailsResponse xmlns="">


<productName>Toptimate 3-Piece Set</productName>


<description>3-Piece luggage set. Black Polyester.</description>







soap web services ws
SOAPWeb Services (WS)
  • Literature surveyed:

1. IBM’s alphaworks site:


3. O’Reilly book on Web Services: Kim Topley’s Webservices in a Nutshell:

This link has a sample chapter (SAAJ) and zip of all examples in the book.


web services suite of protocols
Web Services Suite of Protocols
  • A suite of protocols define the Web Services Technology.
  • These are used to describe, publish, discover, deliver and interact with services.
  • The information about the protocols is from IBM’s developerworks.
ws suite of protocols
WS Suite of Protocols
  • Messaging protocol Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) encodes messages so that they can be delivered over the transport protocols HTTP, SMTP or IIOP.
  • Web Services Definition Language (WSDL) is used to specify the service details such as name, methods and their parameters, and the location of the service. This facilitates the registering and discovery of the service.
  • For services to locate each other, the Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) protocol defines a registry and associated protocols for locating and accessing services.
ws suite of protocols contd
WS Suite of Protocols (contd.)
  • The WS-Transaction and WS-Coordination protocols work together to handle distributed transactions.
  • The Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS) defines workflow operations.
  • WS-Security is a family of protocols that cover authentication, authorization, federated security, secure communications, and delivery.
  • WS-Policy is another group of protocols that define the policy rules behind how and when Web services can interact with each other.
  • WS-Trust defines how trust models work between different services.
ws stack


Quality of Service


WS Stack

Service Flow


Service Discovery


Service Publication


Service Description


XML-based Messaging



Email, IIOP


ws interoperability infrastructure
WS Interoperability Infrastructure

Service Description


XML Messaging




Do you see any platform or language dependencies here?

jax rpc
  • JAX-RPC: Java API for XML-based Remote Procedure Call (RPC).
  • An API for building Web Services and Web Services clients.
  • Some important concepts in JAX-RPC are:
    • Type-mapping system (WSDL to Java)
    • Service endpoint
    • Exception handling
    • Service endpoint context
    • Message handlers
    • Service clients and service context
    • SOAP with attachments
    • Runtime services
    • JAX-RPC client invocation models
jax rpc contd
JAX-RPC (contd.)
  • JAX-RPC is designed to provide a simple way for developers to create Web services server and Web services client.
  • Based on remote procedure calls; so the programming model is familiar to Java developers who have used RMI or CORBA.
  • Major difference between RMI and JAX-RPC is that messages exchanged are encoded in XML based protocol and can be carried over a variety of transport protocols such as HTTP, SMTP etc.
  • You can use JAX-RPC without having to be an expert in XML, SOAP, or HTTP.
the jax rpc programming model
The JAX-RPC Programming Model
  • Services, ports and bindings
  • JAX-RPC web service servers and clients
  • JAX-RPC service creation
  • JAX-RPC client and server programming environments
  • Stubs and ties
  • Client invocation modes
  • Static and dynamic stubs and invocation
services ports and bindings
Services, ports and bindings
  • Service endpoint interface or service endpoint that defines one or more operations that the web service offers.
  • Access to an endpoint is provided by binding it to a protocol stack through a port.
    • A port has an address that the client can use to communicate with the service and invoke its operations.
  • An endpoint can be bound to different ports each offering a different suite of protocols for interaction.
endpoint port and binding
Endpoint, Port and binding

Web service


Port1 port2 port3

Web services Client

SOAP 1.1 over



Over http

Other. Ex:

ebXML over


https 1.1 transport

soap1.1 messages

ws development lifecycle
WS Development Lifecycle
  • Build:
    • Definition of service interface
    • Definition of service implementation
      • New services
      • Existing application into WS
      • Composing a WS out of other WS and applications
    • Source compiled and Stubs and Ties are generated.
  • Deploy:
    • Publication of the service interface and service implementation to service registry or service requestor.
    • Deployment of executables in an execution environment.
ws development lifecycle contd
WS Development Lifecycle (contd.)
  • Run: A WS is available for invocation. Requestor can perform find and bind operation.
  • Manage: on going management and administration for security, availability, performance, QoS, and business processes.
service oriented architectures
Service Oriented Architectures
  • Lets look at some success stories.
  • has is data collection available web services developers.
  • See these URLs:
  • E-Commerce Service (ECS)
    • Conceptual Model  
    • ECS Usage/Query Scenarios
    • Types of data available through ECS (and not available)
    • Sample applications (some of them are cool)
    • Programming and API for making (SOAP) requests
  • We looked at foundational concepts supporting web services: XML, SOAP, WSDL and Web Services standards.
  • We also illustrated the concepts using sample programs.
  • Best way to get started is try out WS tutorials by yourself.