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All parts of nervous system lying outside the central nervous system. ... Autonomic Nervous System - Sends messages to the internal organs and glands. ...

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slide1

How Does the Body Communicate Internally?

    • The Nervous System
  • How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes?
    • Three Layers of the Brain
    • Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
    • Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Methods of Examining Brain Activity
slide3

Brain

Spinal

Cord

Central Nervous System

  • Brain and Spinal Cord
slide4

Brain

Spinal

Cord

Nerves

Peripheral Nervous System

  • All parts of nervous system lying outside the central nervous system.
slide5

The Peripheral Nervous System

  • Somatic (Skeletal) Nervous System -Sends voluntary messages to the body’s skeletal muscles.
  • Autonomic Nervous System - Sends messages to the internal organs and glands.
    • Sympathetic Nervous System (Arousing)
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System (Calming)
slide6

Brain

Dilates pupil

Stimulates salivation

Salivary

glands

Relaxes bronchi

Spinal

cord

Lungs

Accelerates heartbeat

Heart

Inhibits activity

Stomach

Pancreas

Stimulates glucose

Liver

Adrenal

gland

Secretion of adrenaline,

nonadrenaline

Kidney

Relaxes bladder

Sympathetic

ganglia

Stimulates ejaculation

in male

Sympathetic

  • “ Fight or flight” response
  • Release adrenaline and noradrenaline
  • Increases heart rate and blood pressure
  • Increases blood flow to skeletal muscles
  • Inhibits digestive functions
slide7

Brain

Contracts pupil

Stimulates salivation

Constricts bronchi

Spinal

cord

Slows heartbeat

Stimulates activity

Stimulates gallbladder

Gallbladder

Contracts bladder

Stimulates erection

of sex organs

Parasympathetic

  • “ Rest and digest ” system
  • Calms body to conserve and maintain energy
  • Lowers heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure
slide9

The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System

Neurons: Cells specialized to receive and transmit information to other cells in the body. Bundles of many neurons are called nerves.

slide10

The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System

  • Types of Neurons:
    • Sensory Neurons: Carry messages from sense receptors toward the central nervous system.
    • Motor Neurons: Carry messages away from central nervous system toward the muscles and glands.
    • Interneurons: Relay messages from one set of neurons to another.
slide13

Structure of the Neuron

Dendrites: Branched fibers that extend outward from the main cell body and carry information into neuron.

slide14

Structure of the Neuron

Cell Body: The part of a cell (including neurons) containing the nucleus - which includes the chromosomes.

slide15

Structure of the Neuron

Axon: Conducts information from the cell body to the axon terminals in the form of an electric charge.

slide16

Structure of the Neuron

Myelin Sheath: A fatty insulation coating some types of neural axons, which speeds conduction of neural impulses.

slide17

Structure of the Neuron

Axon Terminals: Bulb-like structures at the end of the axon, which contain neurotransmitters that carry the neuron’s message into the synapse..

slide18

Dendrite

Axon

Cell

Body

Neuron Communication

Axon terminals of one neuron branch out near dendrites of another. A small gap - synapse - exists exists between the two.

slide19

Sending

Neuron

Axon

Synapse

Terminal

Neuron Communication

Synaptic Transmission: relay of information across the synapse by means of chemical neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that relay information.

slide20

Neurotransmitters

  • Acetylcoline -In body involved in muscle movement. In brain it is involved in memory.
  • Dopamine - Plays important roles in disorders such as schizophrenia.
  • Serotonin - Involved in sleep and arousal.
  • Endorphins - Play a role in experience of emotion, pain and pleasure.
slide21

The Brain

  • Three Layers of the Brain
  • Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
  • Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Methods of Examining Brain Activity
slide22

Three Layers of the Brain

  • Brain Stem and Cerebellum: Drives vital functions - heart rate, breathing, digestion and motor coordination.
  • Limbic System: Involved in emotion and memory.
  • Cerebrum: Enables reasoning, planning, creating and problem solving.
slide24

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Medulla: Controls breathing and heart rate.

slide25

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Pons: Regulates brain activity during sleep and dreaming.

slide26

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Midbrain: Regulates basic movement patterns - eating, drinking, etc.

slide27

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Thalamus: “Relay station” of the brain.

slide28

The Brain Stem and Cerebellum

Cerebellum: Responsible for coordinated movements

Cerebellum

slide30

The Limbic System

Hippocampus: Involved in establishing long-term memories.

slide31

The Limbic System

Amygdala: Involved in memory and emotion, particularly aggression.

slide32

The Limbic System

Hypothalamus: Monitors blood to determine condition of body.

slide33

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebrum

Cerebral Cortex: Thin gray-matter covering of the cerebrum. Carries on the major portion of our “higher” thinking, including thinking an perceiving.

slide34

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Frontal Lobes: Involved in movement and thinking.

slide35

The Cerebral Cortex - Frontal Lobes

Primary Motor Area: Sends messages that control the body’s voluntary muscles.

slide36

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Parietal Lobes: Involved in touch sensation and in perceiving spatial relationships.

slide37

The Cerebral Cortex - Parietal Lobes

Primary Somatosensory Area: Involved with sensations of touch.

slide38

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Occipital Lobes: Involved in visual perception and processing.

slide39

Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

The Cerebral Cortex

Temporal Lobes: Involved in processing sounds including speech and possibly involved in long-term memory.

slide41

Corpus Callosum

Cerebral Hemispheres

Corpus Callosum: Connects the left and right hemispheres.

slide42

Verbal

left

hemisphere

Nonverbal

right

hemisphere

The ‘Split Brain’ Studies

  • Surgery for epilepsy : cut the corpus callosum
  • Sperry (1968) & Gazzaniga (1970)
slide43

Methods of Examining Brain Activity

  • EEG - electroencephalograph (ERP)
  • CT Scanning - computerized tomography
  • PET Scanning - positron emission tomography
  • MRI - magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)