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Manager Research and Projects

Main issues facing the tanker industry

China Logistics 19 October 2005



Meeting place


The International Association of Independent Tanker Owners

For Safe Transport, Cleaner Seas and Free Competition

  • IMO, International Chamber of Shipping
  • UNCTAD, Oil Companies International Marine Forum
  • IACS, International Assoc. of Classification Societies
  • OECD/IEA of P&I Clubs
  • Brussels.
  • Washington
  • ……..
255 Members

2,380 tankers

192 million dwt

40 countries

70% of independent fleet

280 Associate Members


Safety performance

Current maritime regulatory environment

Players in the tanker industry

Challenges ahead

  • Main issues facing the global tanker industry
Reported tanker incidents 9 ms 2005 - total 104

Hull&Machinery (18 engine, 2 hull)

Accidental oil spills from tankersMajor structural accidents - 000 tonnes


Tanker accidental oil spills
  • down 80%

ts spilt

‘000 bn tonne-miles

99.9999% of the oil

arrived safely

Source: ITOPF

Oil pollution into the sea

Maritime sources

Source: GESAMP

Tanker total losses by size


60% below 60,000dwt

1988 – 1996: 29 CTLs 1996 – 2005: 14 CTLs

Source: Clarkson Shipyard Monitor/INTERTANKO

Tanker and bulker total losses


Source: Clarkson Shipyard Monitor/INTERTANKO

Tanker Size dwt Year

Seatiger, 123,692 1979, 2 fatalities

Atlantic Empress 292,666 1979, 29 “

Energy Determination 321,186 1979 , 1 “

Albahaa B 239,410 1980, 6 “

Mycene 238,889 1980, 6 “

  • Large tankers explosion before IGS requirements 1983/1985
Tanker Size GT Year

Bow Mariner 22,587 2004, 21 fatalities

Vicuna 23,197 2004, 2 “

NCC Mekka 6,499 2004 , 2 “

Panam Serana 6,499 2004 , 2 “

Sun Venus 4,356 2004, 2 “

Sunnny Jewel 4,386 2004, 3 “

Isola Azura 9,383 2005, 2 “

  • Recent tankers explosion
Tanker Explosion 2001-2005






Source: Informa/INTERTANKO

Tanker incidents and age development



Tanker pollution and age development


000 ts


Tanker fleet double-hull development


Source: Fearnleys/INTERTANKO

In shipping high standards reflect the quality of the owner not the regulatory regime

Erik Murdoch

Director of Risk Management, The Standard P&I Club

Leading members of our community, politicians, regulators and charterers alike, appear to be digesting the fact that mere legislative or penalising measures are already reaching their limitations as a driver for further improvement. Many have even started to express their concerns that all such externally imposed controlling devises are becoming counterproductive or even harmful.

Emmanuel Vordonis, Executive Director Thenamaris Ships Management,

Member of INTERTANKO’s Executive Committee

Poseidon challenge

Regulating safety

Self regulation

Compliance culture


Check list mentality stops initiative


Lack of global standards

Right balance provide the best safety culture


Lack of motivation and flexibility

Procedures purely to meet reg. req.

Unsafe - Chaos

Formal regulations and controls


chain of responsibility
Governments Law, Courts, InsurersChain of Responsibility













Forthe system to work, liability has to be shared

Supremacy of IMO & International Maritime Law versus regional and local legislation

Liability - moves to open up CLC/Fund Convention

Annex VI implementation

Criminalising accidental pollution - Penal sanctions adopted by EU

Common Structural Rules & Goal Based Standards

Ship Recycling

Ballast water management

Security - (ISPS costs to be reflected in Worldscale)

Phase out

  • Challenges to the industry
marpol annex vi air emissions how to ensure compliance
Allships of 400GT and above

Entered into force May 19th, 2005

Existing ships no later than 1st scheduled drydocking or no later that May 2008

New ships 19 May 2005

Areas to be considered:

SOx/fuel quality

NOx – spare parts and repairs

VOC – vapour return lines & new technologies

Incinerators (type approved )

Bunkering procedures:

Bunker Delivery Note


Ship’s Note to Flag States – reports on non-compliance

Fuel switch for use of LSF in SECAs

MARPOL Annex VI Air emissions - how to ensure compliance
Ratified by 22 Governments that have a combined tonnage over 50% of World tonnage:

Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Japan, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Norway, Panama, St. Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Vanuatu.

Not ratified by for example:

China, SKorea, France, Netherlands, Middle East Countries, US

Bunkering in a “non party” port followed by a call in a “party” port Potential source of trouble out of ship’s control

  • Traditionallyaccidents have been regarded as quite distinct from deliberate acts
  • Attitudeshave changed(scapegoat mentality) ref. Captain Mangouras, ERIKA, The Karachi Eight TASMAN SPIRIT
  • EUDirective on Ship-Source Pollution (despite wide industry coalition) Canadian Bill C-15 US approach (whistle blowing, enormous fines and rewards
IACS Common Rules for Tankers as from April 2006
  • INTERTANKOinitiative started more than five years ago
  • Objectives were to:
      • eliminate class competition on scantlings
      • embrace the intentions of goal-based standards
      • meet the requirements of industry and the shipyards
  • will apply for double hull tankers of 150 m and above.
  • Ships should be designed with a fatigue life of 25 years based on N Atlantic winter conditions, with corrosion additions also based on 25 years, at least equivalent to or even in excess of all current Class regulations.
Ship Recycling

Industry Code of Practice (1999)

ILO & Basel Guidelines

  • Shipping Industry Feedback
  • Workable
  • Practical
  • Objectives Met

IMO Guidelines (2003)

Consideration of Mandatory Elements

  • Market Forces
  • Shipping Industry
  • Green Recycling

International Ship Recycling Convention

Ballast Water Management:
  • Meeting the Treatment Standard – Treatment Technology
  • Meeting the Treatment Standard
    • Ballast Water Exchange and/or Treatment Technology

Ships Constructed before 2009 with BW capacity 1500-5000, treatment technology in use after 2014

Ships Constructed before 2009 with BW capacity less than 1500 and greater than 5000, treatment technology in use after 2016

Phase in for Treatment System Installation (B-3)

Ships Constructed on or after 2009 with BW capacity less than 5000, treatment technology in use from 2009

Ships Constructed after 2009 but before 2012 with BW capacity greater than 5000, treatment technology in use after 2016

Ships Constructed at 2012 or after with BW capacity greater than 5000, treatment technology in use after 2012

Ballast Water Management:
  • Meeting the Treatment Standard – Treatment Technology
  • Case Studies
  • 40,000dwt Product Tanker to be delivered July 2007
  • Ballast water capacity greater than 5000m3 so will be able to conduct ballast water exchange until 2016, when it will then have to have been retrofitted with a ballast water treatment system.
  • B) 8,000dwt Chemical Tanker to be delivered July 2007
  • Ballast capacity of less than 5000m3 but greater than 1500m3, will have to be retrofitted with a ballast water treatment system by 2014.
  • Existing VLCC – delivered 2003
  • Ballast water exchange until 2016, retrofitted after 2016. BUT, if prototype system installed and test programme approved by IMO, 5 year exemption given, upgrade system in 2021.
In the aftermath of Exxon Valdez, 0n 18 August 1990, the US President signed into law the US Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). This was the first regulation which has mandated double hull design for tankers with a building contract after 30 June 1990 and with a delivery after 31 Dec. 1992

First IMO phase out initiated by the US OPA 90 - ratified by IMO March1992 - enforced as from July 1993

Accelerated IMO phase out initiated by Europe as a result of the ERIKA accident outside France - ratified by IMO April 2000 - enforced as from September 2001

Further acceleration of IMO phase out initiated by Europe as a result of the PRESTIGE accident outside Spain - ratified by IMO December 2003, enforced as from April 2005 - enforced by Europe as from October 2003

The European Union’s Regulation (1726/2003) on single hull tankers took effect on 21st October 2003

Both ERIKA and PRESTIGE carried Heavy Fuel Oils that can pollute up to ten times more than crude oil.  IMO therefore adopted a new regulation – Regulation 13H of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 – banning the carriage of heavy grade oil as cargo in single hull oil tankers as from 5 April 2005.

  • Phase out history

Category 1 - non PL/SBT (pre-MARPOL) tankers out by 2005

Category 2/3 out by 2010 or 2015 subject to administrations

Double bottom or side tankers until 25 years


Heavy grades of oil in double hull tankers

Provisions for some heavy crude oils, double bottom/side tankers and domestic trade

OPA90 schedule/size limit different

Conversion to PL/SBT - DH

AnnexII revision not phase out, but will shut SH tankers out of vegoil+ trades as from 2007

  • Phase out Regulations
Special provisions

13 G (5) - double bottom/sides - CAS requirement

13 G (7) - SH trading beyond 2010/25 years

13 G (8) (b) – entry into ports or offshore terminals (provisions (5), (7)

13 H (5) - double bottom/sides - trading beyond 2010/25 years

13 H (6) (a) - crude oil having a density at 15ºC higher than 900 kg/m3 but lower than 945 kg/m3

13H (6) (b) - 600 tons dwt and above but less than 5,000 tons dwt - SH until 25 years

13 H (7) - exclusively within an area under its jurisdiction,

13 H (8) (b) – entry into ports or offshore terminals (provisions (5), (6)

  • Phase out
Implementation policies


  • Strongindustry performance, but no complacency
  • Zero tolerance to oil pollution
  • FormalRegulations must provide room for flexibility and new initiatives
  • Most pending regulations are common industry regulations
  • Industry challenge to ensure global standards and regulations
  • Cooperation with all the members in the maritime responsibility chain will provide the best results
Strong responsible, sustainable and respected industry able to influence its own destiny
  • INTERTANKO’s aim