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14.Water quality changes of the seawater. 2/4/11. 4. The aims of City of Kokkola ... Erosion: sandy beaches turn out to stony. Ice cover changes? No ice at ...

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Case study areas: Cities Kokkola and Raahe

18-20. May 2006


Satu Putkinen, GTK Finland

case study areas
Case Study areas
  • City of Kokkola
  • City of Raahe

Bothnian Bay

case kokkola
Case Kokkola
  • Main interests are the impacts on:
  • 1.Harbours
  • 2.Industrial sewage water plant
  • 4.municipal sewage water plant
  • 5.Rummelö Natura 2000 area
  • 6.Planned Sea Kokkola residential area
  • 7.River Sunti planning
  • 8.Bride Island residential area
  • 9.Trullevi recreational buildings
  • 10.Boat harbours
  • 11.Recreation areas on shoreline
  • 12.Dredgings of boating routes and shores
  • 13.Wind energy building
  • 14.Water quality changes of the seawater
the aims of city of kokkola
The aims of City of Kokkola
  • Description of the most probable/worst scenarios (sea level rise, storms, irregular weather events, droughts, precipitation, flow rates of the rivers).
  • To describe the development alternatives of the Old Harbour Bay and surroundings as well as the Ykspihlaja industry area in different scenarios till year 2100.
  • How these results can be taken into account in city planning – WP3 – documentation of the planning and related communication processes.
historical rewiew future
Historical rewiew - future

Shore line changes


  • Collecting of the data of shore line changes and land use 500 years back (maps and physical changes on environment)
  • Estimating shore line changes till year 2100 in different scenarios



Kokkola, founded 1620



kokkola sea level change
Kokkola sea level change

High case

+10 cm

Ensemble average

-41 cm

Low case

-87 cm


Draft version

The lowest allowed height of building: Kokkola 2.20m, Raahe 1.50m

the city of kokkola
The City of Kokkola
  • In 1980’ies storm surge cause flooding in River Sunti – water level reached Market place 2 kilometers from sea-shore.
  • Water level changes happen in few hours during the storms
  • Highest water level in November (1.2 meters above normal) – critical time for storms if no ice cover.
  • Usually ice cover between December and April

Draft version

Draft version

ykspihlaja area in kokkola
Ykspihlaja area in Kokkola
  • Heavy industrial area
  • Sewage treatment plant near sea
  • Industrial waste water reservoir 3 m a.s.l.
  • Natura - protection area

Draft version

Draft version

Draft version

impacts on leisure time
Impacts on leisure time
  • Summer cottages by the sea shore
  • Boating – changing routes
  • Skiing, skating
  • Icehole fishing
the lowest recommendable height for building
The lowest recommendable height for building
  • * Including the minimum wave action
  • Source: Kahma et al. 1998
the city of raahe
The City of Raahe
  • Old housing and summer cottage area on low-lying seashore
  • Boat routes are in danger
  • There is model of sea-level changes for harbour done before
  • Effects on coastal nature
the city of raahe12
The City of Raahe
  • Ideal coast for wind mill park: low coast, small islands to shelter the mills > Problems in future? Storm winds? Advantages? Best locations?
  • How will the the currents in Bothnian Bay change in future?
  • Rivers bring sand and other debris with nutrients to shore >> problems with algae in closed bays
  • Moving underwater sandbanks cause problems in coastal area. Erosion: sandy beaches turn out to stony
  • Ice cover changes? No ice at the winters? More heap pack ice? Will the ice masses pack into the coasts more often? Can extend 600 m on-shore causing destruction! How to prepare for that?
the city of raahe13
The City of Raahe
  • Heavy industrial area is near the shore. (metal)
  • Port of Kokkola is one of the busiest (6)
  • Open year round
  • 700 ships / year
  • Route to be dredged 2007-2008 (10 meters deep)
thank you
Thank you!

Satu Putkinen

Western Finland Office, GTK

Tel.: + 358205505221

Mobile: + 358505361151