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14.Water quality changes of the seawater. 2/4/11. 4. The aims of City of Kokkola ... Erosion: sandy beaches turn out to stony. Ice cover changes? No ice at ...

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Case study areas: Cities Kokkola and Raahe

18-20. May 2006


Satu Putkinen, GTK Finland

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Case Study areas

  • City of Kokkola

  • City of Raahe

Bothnian Bay

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Case Kokkola

  • Main interests are the impacts on:

  • 1.Harbours

  • 2.Industrial sewage water plant

  • 4.municipal sewage water plant

  • 5.Rummelö Natura 2000 area

  • 6.Planned Sea Kokkola residential area

  • 7.River Sunti planning

  • 8.Bride Island residential area

  • 9.Trullevi recreational buildings

  • 10.Boat harbours

  • 11.Recreation areas on shoreline

  • 12.Dredgings of boating routes and shores

  • 13.Wind energy building

  • 14.Water quality changes of the seawater

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The aims of City of Kokkola

  • Description of the most probable/worst scenarios (sea level rise, storms, irregular weather events, droughts, precipitation, flow rates of the rivers).

  • To describe the development alternatives of the Old Harbour Bay and surroundings as well as the Ykspihlaja industry area in different scenarios till year 2100.

  • How these results can be taken into account in city planning – WP3 – documentation of the planning and related communication processes.

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Historical rewiew - future

Shore line changes


  • Collecting of the data of shore line changes and land use 500 years back (maps and physical changes on environment)

  • Estimating shore line changes till year 2100 in different scenarios



Kokkola, founded 1620



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Kokkola sea level change

High case

+10 cm

Ensemble average

-41 cm

Low case

-87 cm


Draft version

The lowest allowed height of building: Kokkola 2.20m, Raahe 1.50m

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The City of Kokkola

  • In 1980’ies storm surge cause flooding in River Sunti – water level reached Market place 2 kilometers from sea-shore.

  • Water level changes happen in few hours during the storms

  • Highest water level in November (1.2 meters above normal) – critical time for storms if no ice cover.

  • Usually ice cover between December and April

Draft version

Draft version

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Ykspihlaja area in Kokkola

  • Heavy industrial area

  • Sewage treatment plant near sea

  • Industrial waste water reservoir 3 m a.s.l.

  • Natura - protection area

Draft version

Draft version

Draft version

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Impacts on leisure time

  • Summer cottages by the sea shore

  • Boating – changing routes

  • Skiing, skating

  • Icehole fishing

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The lowest recommendable height for building

  • * Including the minimum wave action

  • Source: Kahma et al. 1998

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The City of Raahe

  • Old housing and summer cottage area on low-lying seashore

  • Boat routes are in danger

  • There is model of sea-level changes for harbour done before

  • Effects on coastal nature

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The City of Raahe

  • Ideal coast for wind mill park: low coast, small islands to shelter the mills > Problems in future? Storm winds? Advantages? Best locations?

  • How will the the currents in Bothnian Bay change in future?

  • Rivers bring sand and other debris with nutrients to shore >> problems with algae in closed bays

  • Moving underwater sandbanks cause problems in coastal area. Erosion: sandy beaches turn out to stony

  • Ice cover changes? No ice at the winters? More heap pack ice? Will the ice masses pack into the coasts more often? Can extend 600 m on-shore causing destruction! How to prepare for that?

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The City of Raahe

  • Heavy industrial area is near the shore. (metal)

  • Port of Kokkola is one of the busiest (6)

  • Open year round

  • 700 ships / year

  • Route to be dredged 2007-2008 (10 meters deep)

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Thank you!

Satu Putkinen

Western Finland Office, GTK

Tel.: + 358205505221

Mobile: + 358505361151