Army’s Digital Array Radars
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Slide1 l.jpg

Army’s Digital Array Radars

October 11, 2007

U.S. Army . Program Executive Office, Intelligence, Electronic Warfare & Sensors

Dr. Rich Wittstruck

richard.wittstruck@us.army.mil

Unclassified


Today s counterfire radar capabilities l.jpg

50 km

Rocket

30 km

Cannon

Today’s Counterfire Radar Capabilities

24 km

Rocket

Mortar

Mortar

18 km

6.5 km

14.5 km

Cannon

AN/TPQ-48(V)2

AN/TPQ-36(8)

AN/TPQ-37(8)

  • SOF system derivative fielded on operational needs statement

  • Only mortars: 1-6.5km

  • 360° coverage

  • Range and accuracy improvements in V3

  • Mortars: 0.75-18km

  • Medium Cannon: 3-14.5km

  • Rockets: 8-24km

  • 90° Coverage

  • Improved Processor On-going

  • Medium Cannon: 3-30km

  • Rockets: 3-50km

  • 90o Coverage

  • RMI Initiative

  • Long Range software initiative in SWBII+ adds 120KM mode


Giraffe l.jpg
GIRAFFE

BACKGROUND

  • Air defense radar with an added Counterfire mode

  • Countefire performance acceptable for limited target sets


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Radar Processor Replacement

  • 128 circuit cards (86 unique)

  • 20 cubic feet

  • 3 KW of power

  • Complex “wired” backplane

  • Non-programmable

  • No growth

TPQ-37

  • New modern architecture

  • 100% COTS technology

  • Non-proprietary

  • Open architecture

  • Supports future software requirements

  • Leverages MPQ-64 software

  • 3 VME cards

  • Lighter weight

  • 0.2 KW of power

  • Commonality with AN/TPQ-36(V)8 Radar Processor

Common

Processor

TPQ-36/37

Upgrade


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Transmitter Upgrade

Transmitter/Cooler



Eq 36 l.jpg

3Km

Mortar Cannon

15 Km

EQ - 36

Q37 Capabilities

Q36 Footprint

60Km

Rocket

  • 90º Range

  • Mortars –0.5 to 20 km

  • Artillery – 3 to 32 km

  • Rockets – 15 to 60 km

32Km

Cannon

Mortar

20Km

OR

  • Solid State Antenna

  • Remote Operations

  • Prognostics Maintenance

  • Crew size 4

  • Single C-130 lift

  • Single vehicle

  • Improved Clutter Mitigation

  • Warn

  • 360º Range (Mortars)

    • Light - 3 to 10 km Medium – 3 to 12 km Heavy – 3 to 15 km


General considerations l.jpg
General Considerations

  • Use of spectrum

  • Size/Weight/Power

    • Q37+ performance in Q36 footprint (90 Degree)

    • Add 360 degree capability

  • “-ilities”, especially:

    • Mobility/Transportability

    • Survivability

    • Reliability/maintainability


Endstate l.jpg
Endstate

Army LCMR

SOF LCMR

Long Range Counterfire Radar

  • 90° Coverage

  • 60Km for Artillery

  • 300Km Max Range for Missiles

  • Single Sortie C-130

E Q36 Increment I/II

MMR

ATNAVICS

  • Counterfire Target Acquisition

  • Air Defense

  • Air Defense Fire Control

  • Air Traffic Control

Sentinel



Assumptions used in technology assessment l.jpg
Assumptions used in Technology Assessment

Objective: To establish a working template to assess various device technologies for a power transmitter used in different system requirements.

  • Solid-state phased array system

  • Output power per element: 25W

  • Mode of operation: CW and Pulsed

  • Final performance can be scaled

  • Estimation of baseplate temperature needed to maintain PA MMIC(s) of different technologies; leading in cooling requirements

  • For a particular technology, overall system DC conversion efficiency and I2R distribution loss also to be considered to assess its advantage; trade-off should be noted



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The Philosophy of Radar Design

“There has been no significant change in Doppler Radar front-end architecture/concept since World-War II. The only difference in modern radar is the digital electronics for signal processing.”

Skolnik

Conventional Radar:

  • Super heterodyne receiver architecture/concept

    • - Theory was developed for CW RF

    • - Doppler or information detection achieved by frequency domain filtering

  • But, most modern Radar are pulsed Radar

    • Use multiple pulses

    • Increase transmission power

    • Require very high SFDR

    • Require super oscillators…

  • Limited Performance:

    • Doppler-range ambiguity

RF in

LNA

IF

A/D

LF

LO


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RF-Photonic Interferoceiver For MicroDoppler Radar

DARPA Funded Seeding Efforts at Army Research Lab:

  • Investigate the MicroDoppler signature

    • Theoretical modeling and simulation

      • MicroDoppler detection

      • Noise analysis

  • Study the experimental feasibility of interferoceiver

    • Fiber recirculation loop experiment

    • Technology survey


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RF - Photonic Correlation Receiver for Channelizer Concept

True time domain self correlation produced by the fiber recirculation loop

  • Astrophysicists are able to retrieve their signal 36dB below noise level! (Joe Taylor)

t1

Optical Amplifier

Self-correlation data in

fiber

EDFA

∆l

RFin

L1

λ

Interference combiner

+sq law detector

Coupler

filter

A/D

Laser

Modulator

1x2

φ

L2

t2

Fourier Transform


System design l.jpg

Trange

System Design:

Photonic Pulse Doppler Radar / Experimental

Pulse Doppler Radar:

t

Tpulse

Receive antenna

RF in

Optical Amplifier/absorber

Doppler out

λ1

Laser

Modulator

WDM

WDM

λ2

φ

Coupler

Laser

Modulator

RFLO


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Let’s Transition This Technology

  • So that the future RF Radar systems can:

  • Use single transmit / receive pulse

  • Don’t worry about SFDR

  • Don’t worry aboutspeed and bandwidth of A/D

  • Ultra wide band and frequency agile

  • Channelizing with extreme large number of channels (large bandwidth, high resolution)

  • 1 Hz resolution micro Doppler detection

  • Precise range and Doppler for long distance high speed target

  • Detect small signal from the noise floor



Slide19 l.jpg

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop

Reflected

SQUARE

LAW RF

RECEIVER

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop

Original

RF-Photonic Interferoceiver

One pulse can determine Doppler Beating

Both loops have the same length L

n is the number of circulations

Interfering Amplitudes

Intensity Variation


Slide20 l.jpg

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop L1

Received RF

Transfer

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop L2

ω

t

RF-Photonic Correlation Receiver For Channelizer

Self-Correlation in time domain

Time domain correlation spectrum analyzer:

But A/D sampling a CW signal.

Again, not a true time domain correlation!

t


True correlation receivers l.jpg
True Correlation Receivers

True Time Domain Correlation

Received RF

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop

Transfer

Reference RF

t

ω

Self-Correlator

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop: L1

Received RF

Transfer

Optical Fiber

Recirculation

Loop: L2

t

ω


Slide22 l.jpg

True Correlation Receiver

  • The Power of Time Domain True Correlation Receiver

    • Astrophysicists are able to be able to retrieve their signal 36dB below noise level! (Joe Taylor)

Cannot get info

with short pulse

For CW RF:

Time domain

Received signal

f(ωt)

t

Reference (LO)

Doppler

f(ωot)

Frequency domain

We need to do correlation for pulse RF!

ωo

ω


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