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Crossing the Bridge to Nanomanufacturing. Tech 2003 Speakers: Marcene Sonneborn Kirk Wardell. May 7, 2003. Topics in This Session. Nanotechnology Basics The Vision, The Promise and the Threat NanoManufacturing The Reality and the Opportunity.

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slide1

Crossing the Bridge to Nanomanufacturing

Tech 2003

Speakers:

Marcene Sonneborn

Kirk Wardell

May 7, 2003

topics in this session
Topics in This Session
  • Nanotechnology Basics
    • The Vision, The Promise and the Threat
  • NanoManufacturing
    • The Reality and the Opportunity
fundamental drivers of change in the 21 st century
Fundamental Drivers of Change in the 21st Century
  • Information Technology
  • Materials Science
  • Energy
  • Biotechnology/Genetics
  • Environmental Issues
what is nanotechnology
What is Nanotechnology?
  • 1987
  • “The art and science of manipulating and

rearranging individual

atoms to create useful materials, devices, and systems”

      • Jack Uldrich, “The Next Big Thing is Really Small – How Nanotechnology will Change the Future of your Business,” 2003
building with molecules
Building With Molecules
  • Fabricating a product, molecule by molecule
  • Computerized manipulation of materials at atomic or molecular level
    • 100% control of our materials
what is nanotechnology6
What is “Nanotechnology”?
  • Coined in 1974 by Norio Taniguchi at the University of Tokyo
  • Based on the scaling down of existing technologies to the next level of precision and miniaturization.
  • Actually a multitude of rapidly emerging technologies
multiple technologies
Physics

Chemistry

Engineering

Life Sciences

Mathematics

Materials Science

Computer Science

Electronics

Optics

Imaging

Multiple Technologies
related and interwoven fields include but are not limited to
Nano-

materials

medicine

biotechnology

lithography

electronics

magnetics

robots

Biodevices

biomolecular machinery

AI

MEMS

MicroElectroMechanical Systems

NEMS

NanoElectroMechanical Systems

Biomimetic Materials

Microencapsulation

Many others

Related and interwoven fields include, but are not limited to:
is this science fiction
IS THIS SCIENCE FICTION?
  • 1959 - vision of Richard Feynman, Physicist
  • 1996 Nobel prize was awarded to Richard Smalley, Rice University
  • Billions being spent on research
    • MIT
    • University of Tokyo
  • Hottest research in military R&D, government sponsored health research
nanotechnology
Nanotechnology

We are at the point of connecting machines to individual cells

Atoms

<1 nm

Cells

thousands of nm

DNA

~2.5 nm

nanoscale is more accurate
Nanoscale is More Accurate
  • “Nano"
    • a Greek prefix meaning "one-billionth"
    • Basic unit of measure is a nanometer (nm)
    • a metric prefix that indicates a billionth part (10-9).
  • Nanoscale - characteristic dimensions are less than about 1,000 nanometers
just how small is it
“Just How Small is It?”
  • If a nanometer were scaled to the width of your little fingernail…
    • Your fingernail would be the size of Delaware
    • Your thumb would be the size of Florida
nanoscale science
Nanoscale Science
  • Not a technology - it’s materials science
  • Features as small as one nanometer
    • one-billionth of a meter, or
    • a hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair
  • Hemoglobin = 6.5nm
  • Viruses are 10-100 nm
  • Human hair = 100,000nm
nanoguitar cornell university
Nanoguitar – Cornell University
  • Ten microns (10 x 10-6 m) long, about the size of a red blood cell.
    • Thickness of a human hair is about 20 times the length of this guitar.
  • The "strings" (rods of silicon) are 50 nm wide or about 100 atoms across.
the potential
The Potential
  • Many scientists believe that soon—maybe 50 years from now—tiny robots … will be able to build or repair anything at the atomic and molecular level.
      • http://www.physicscentral.com/action/action-00-1-print.html
potential of the research
Potential of the Research
  • Improved electronic devices
    • cheaper flat-screen televisions
    • palm-size computers that recognize speech
  • Magnetic storage disks that could hold 100,000 times more data than current disks
the vision
The Vision
  • In the next 50 years, machines will get increasingly smaller--so small that thousands of these tiny machines would fit into the period at the end of this sentence.
the vision19
The Vision
  • Within a few decades, we will use these nanomachines to manufacture consumer goods at the molecular level…
    • Make baseballs, telephones, cars, etc. in the same company
if we can manipulate single atoms
If we can manipulate single atoms…

…the results could lead to a revolution in computing, electronics, energy, materials design, manufacturing, medicine, and numerous other fields.

vision hype or potential
Vision - Hype or Potential?
  • “Nanotechnology – the next big thing”
    • Investors beware!
  • Self-Assembly
    • Microscopic computer that assembles itself, atom by atom, then calculates at a speed faster than today's zippiest electronic chips
self assembly uses forces in nature
Self Assembly Uses Forces in Nature
  • Chemical attraction
      • Chemical bonds
      • Water-repellant
  • Biological attraction
      • Transfer of material through cell walls, DNA
      • Antibody-antigen reaction
  • Physical attraction
      • Magnetic fields
      • Electron charges
self assembly at millimeter scales
Self-Assembly at Millimeter Scales
  • Molecules want to form structures
    • Coded to do this
  • Order/complexity is “built in” to the components
  • Low energy requirements
    • Simple when it works, but don’t yet know the rules for how things aggregate
  • 5mm plastic self-assembled light-emitting diode (fits on a penny)
    • Whitesides, 2000
molecular nanotechnology
Molecular Nanotechnology
  • Molecular machines able to build objects to complex atomic specifications
  • Possibilities include:
    • molecular manufacturing systems able to construct computers smaller than living cells,
    • devices able to repair cells,
    • diamond-based structural materials, and
    • other molecular manufacturing systems.
slide26

Smallest object ever created by humans

was sculpted by two laser beams focused across resin. The resin solidified only where the lasers crossed.

Created by a team of researchers at Osaka University in Japan, the bull measures 10 microns from horns to tail, and seven microns across (1 micron = 1000 nm).

nano bull
Nano Bull
  • Could sit on a single human blood cell
  • Can fabricate any structure of design.
  • Another team at Osaka University is developing devices to be implanted into the human body
    • Hope to combine the two techniques
    • Cell surgery or blood cell reparation
the promise
The Promise
  • Promises to be a new Industrial Revolution.
  • Global market for nanotech products to reach $700 billion by 2008
  • Cheap products
  • 100% recyclable
  • The leanest manufacturing ever!!
visions of life
VISIONS OF LIFE
  • Nanotechnology makes better social and economic conditions possible:
    • Every product made to customer specifications
    • Food plentiful
    • Diseases cured (Nanobiotechnology)
    • Clean up toxic waste
    • Create clean energy and bountiful clean water
slide30
C60
  • “buckyballs” or fullerenes
  • Can encapsulate things
  • Many interesting properties
    • Superconductivity
carbon nanotubes
Carbon Nanotubes
  • Tubes 10,000 X thinner than a human hair
  • An electronic device based on a single rolled-up sheet of carbon atoms
  • Discovered in 1991 by researchers at NEC
  • Potential for use as minuscule wires or in ultra-small electronic devices.
nanotubes
Nanotubes
  • Mechanically strong - held by covalent bonds
  • Folds and buckles but does not snap
  • Hollow interiors - put things inside them
  • Different radius
  • Tube is stable and won’t react on the outside
  • Conductive and respond to electrical fields
carbon nanotube transistor
Carbon Nanotube Transistor
  • May 2002: Researchers built the world's first array of transistors out of carbon nanotubes -- tiny cylinders of carbon atoms that measure as small as 10 atoms across and are 500 times smaller than today's silicon-based transistors.
  • The breakthrough is a new batch process for forming large numbers of nanotube transistors.
the threat
The Threat
  • Displacing mature technologies
  • Disruptive in the workplace and the economy
  • Unintended consequences
    • Social impacts
nanotech trends
NANOTECH TRENDS
  • Convergence of computers, networks, biotech will create products never before imagined
  • Nanodevices will be invisible, intelligent and powerful
    • Used in every industry defining the limits of what is possible
nanotech trends38
NANOTECH TRENDS
  • Smaller than the head of a pin, surgical nanobots will operate from within the human body
  • Nano-biology will prolong life, prevent illness, and increase people’s health
nanotech signs
NANOTECH SIGNS
  • StuffDust (nano-product created by San Francisco-based company minus9)
    • Marks objects and materials with serial numbers invisible to the naked eye - easily read with an optical microscope
    • Composed of micron-scale particles
      • Smaller than human hair
      • Carries a serial number
    • Marketed as efficient and secure way to mark computers, currency, explosives, toxic waste, etc.
    • New way to thwart thieves and improve inventory controls and manufacturing
nanotech signs40
NANOTECH SIGNS
  • World’s first implantable micro-machine, insulin-dispensing device was developed in 1998
  • Miniature cochlea ear implants are giving back hearing to thousands of people
  • Cornell scientist created a nano-sized guitar to demonstrate the scale at which we can manipulate molecules today
visions of life41
VISIONS OF LIFE
  • Organic nano-engineering:
    • Computer biochips with organic materials to replace silicon
    • Viruses and proteins as molecular machines or nanofactories to build commercial products
    • New drug development
visions of life42
VISIONS OF LIFE
  • Synthetic DNA (nanogeonomics) to use for creating cloned life forms, robotics, human organs, and hybrid synthetic/organic compounds
  • Nano-informatics - use of advanced computers to “grow” nano-engineered products from informational models
nanotechnology what is it
Nanotechnology – What is it?
  • Rearrange matter with atomic precision
  • Central thesis of nanotechnology is that almost any chemically stable structure that is not specifically disallowed by the laws of physics can in fact be built.
slide44
Researchers have been building tiny motors inspired by machinery inside living cells.
  • These biomolecular motors run on adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, the same energy-rich molecule that powers chemical reactions within cells.
the promise nanotechnology should let us
The Promise – Nanotechnology should let us:
  • Get every atom in the right place.
  • Make almost any structure consistent with the laws of physics that we can specify in molecular detail.
  • Have manufacturing costs not greatly exceeding the cost of the required raw materials and energy.
health issues
Health Issues
  • Some nanoparticles are so small, they can slip past the immune system or directly into the brain, bypassing the selective blood-brain barrier.
  • Makes nanoparticles useful for delivering much-needed drugs
  • But they might also deliver toxins.
environmental studies
Environmental Studies
  • Studying how nano-structured membranes could screen pesticides and harmful bacteria from water supplies.
  • Other scientists are developing low-cost, nano-scale iron hydroxide granules to remove arsenic from drinking water.
  • Still others have suggested that nano-sized sensors could help detect pollutants or monitor and correct changes in the ozone layer.
if it can be done it will be done
“If it can be done, it will be done”
  • “The same kinds of sweeping patents that have allowed biotech firms to "own life," in effect, may allow nanotech firms to "own" the building blocks of the entire physical world”
    • Hope Shand, director of research in the ETC Group, Carrboro, N.C.
slide50

Crossing the Bridge to Nanomanufacturing

Tech 2003

Speakers:

Marcene Sonneborn

Kirk Wardell

May 7, 2003

nanotech who s involved
Nanotech – Who’s Involved

Entrepreneurs

Public

Companies

Private

Companies

Nanotechnology

Universities

Venture

Capital

Non-Profits

Government

Grade

Schools

nanotech collectively b s t s

2003

$???M

2003

$???M

Entrepreneurs

Public

Companies

Private

Companies

2003

$880M

Nanotechnology

Universities

Venture

Capital

2003

$???B

Non-Profits

Government

Grade

Schools

2003

$766M

Nanotech - Collectively, $B’s & $T’s
federal initiative national nanotechnology initiative nni
Federal Initiative: National NanotechnologyInitiative (NNI)
  • Ten Federal Agencies are requesting funding in the 2004 budget for NNI activities
  • FY 2004 budget request $847
    • 9.5% increase over FY 2003
nni chart
NNI Chart
  • NNI expenditures in the United States:
  • FY 01 $464 M
  • FY 02 $604 M
  • FY 03 $710 M
the are flowing
The $$ are Flowing
  • 2002 – 2003> 18% increase in the budget
some areas of focus

Energy

Disease

Treatment

Medications

Manufacturing

Plastics

Electronics

Organ

Growth

Nanotechnology

Transportation

Ceramics

Weapons

Sensors

Textiles

Epoxies

Metals

Waste

Surgery

Some Areas of Focus
methods must change
Methods Must Change
  • Current Methods
    • Start Larger
    • Grind, saw, weld, melt, machine, bend, etc into desired part or product
  • The Nano Method
    • Start with atoms and molecules
    • Grow to desired end product
  • The Bridge Methods
    • Add Nano & Micro Technologies to existing processes and or materials > Nanocomposites & MEMS
slide58
MEMS

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

mems applications
MEMS Applications
  • Miniature Microphones
  • Inkjet Printer Heads
  • Piezo Light Switches > self powered
  • Airbags > accelerometers
  • Environment Sensors > Temperature, pressure, etc
  • Wired / Wireless Communication
mems in the marketplace
MEMS in the Marketplace
  • Applied MEMS to Provide Accelerometers for Earthquake MonitoringMay 03 @ 22:02:10 HOUSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--May 1, 2003Applied MEMS Inc. [profile], an Input/Output company, and Refraction Technology Inc. (REF TEK), announced today that Applied MEMS has been selected to manufacture its MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) based Si-Flex(TM) accelerometer sensor modules for REF TEK, a leading supplier of seismic recording systems for earthquake monitoring applications.

REF TEK will integrate the sensor modules into seismic recording systems for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). The Si-Flex sensor converts ground vibrations into an electronic signal that can be processed for monitoring seismic events such as earthquakes. This represents the second such contract from REF TEK with Applied MEMS for addressing this specific application.

nanocomposites
Nanocomposites

Cocktail of organic and in-organic materials that are brought together by catalysts

to form super materials whose properties are significantly better than either of the

individual materials.

The whole is greater than the sum of the parts

case in point
Case in Point
  • Nanosteel Company > Maitland, Florida
    • Developed coating for steel
      • 20,000 inch thick > mixture of iron, carbon, tungsten, boron
      • increased surface hardness > 4x over conventional alloys
      • lasted 48 hours on 20-ton mining rock-crusher plates before wearing out > any other coating lasts1 hour
      • currently being tested by Navy to extend engine life from 80 hours to over 1000 hours > saving $110,000 per engine replacement
cause affect
Cause & Affect

The Technology

Potential Industries Impacted

Engine Manufactures

fewer engines needed

Engine Part Manufactures

fewer parts needed

Nanosteel

Coating

Drill Bit Manufactures

fewer bits needed

nanoclay
Nanoclay
  • Added to plastic
    • Improved tensile strength
    • Improved vapor barrier traits
    • Low wt. % required
    • More flame resistant
    • Biodegradable
  • Uses
    • Food packaging
    • Beer and other carbonated drinks
    • Most areas where bottles/cans are used
cause affect65
Cause & Affect

Potential Industries Impacted

The Technology

Bottle Manufactures

Decrease in the numberof bottles used

Nanoclay

Can Manufactures

Decrease in the number

of cans used

Transportation

Lower weight means less revenue

yeah but when
Yeah, But When ??
  • How long does it take for companies to change?
    • 1, 2, 5, 7, …x years
  • How quickly is technology advancing?
    • Every 10, 5, 2, …x years
  • Will technology advance faster than some companies’ ability to change?
how will methods change
How Will Methods Change
  • Might get easier
    • Some catalyzed materials are easier to process
  • Might stay the same
    • Some materials have no apparent affect on the process
  • Might have to completely change
    • Some materials will require extensive changes to current processes including wholesale replacement
now what do i do
Now What Do I Do
  • Become Educated
    • The Web
      • Search Enginetype in “Nanotech + your industry name”
      • Foresight Institutehttp://www.foresight.org/NanoRev/index.html
      • TDOhttp://www.tdo.org/nano.htm
now what do i do71
Now What Do I Do
  • Become Educated
    • Read
      • A listing of nano books on Amazon.comhttp://www.foresight.org/NanoRev/Bookstore.html
      • Periodicals > Small Timeshttp://smalltimes.com/index.cfm
      • eNewsletters > industry / focus specific
now what do i do72
Now What Do I Do
  • Become Educated
    • Get Involved
      • Alliances / Focus Groups
        • Alliance for Nanomedical Technologies
        • Plastics Industry
      • Symposiums / Conferences
        • Polymer Outreach Program > May 21-23
        • Albany Symposium 2003 > September 22-24
      • University Partnerships
        • Outreach programs
nanotechnology research centers
Nanotechnology Research Centers
  • Federally Funded Nanotech Centers
    • Total of 6 in the United States – 3 of the 6 are in New York State
      • CornellUniversityCenter for Nanoscale Systems (largest of the 6)
      • Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteDirected Assembly of Nanostructures
      • Columbia UniversityElectronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures
available resources
Available Resources
  • Alfred University > Ceramics
  • Binghamton University > Electronic Packaging
  • Clarkson University > Coatings & Surface Science
  • Cornell University > Materials
  • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute > Robotics
  • Rochester Institute of Technology > Bioinformatics
  • Syracuse University >Software Engineering
  • University at Albany > Semiconductors
  • UniversityatBuffalo > Biotechnology
bottom line
Bottom Line
  • Don’t Wait
  • Start Investigating Now
  • It’s fun / exciting
  • Helps create competitive advantage
  • Helps create more of a reason for customers to look to you for solutions