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The National Off-Highway Equipment Environmental Outlook 2010 Randall-Reilly Construction Symposium Tuscaloosa, Alabama April 29, 2010 The National Off-Highway Equipment Environmental Outlook 2010 Randall-Reilly Construction Symposium Tuscaloosa, Alabama April 29, 2010

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slide2

The National Off-Highway

Equipment Environmental Outlook

2010 Randall-Reilly Construction Symposium

Tuscaloosa, Alabama

April 29, 2010

slide3

The National Off-Highway

Equipment Environmental Outlook

2010 Randall-Reilly Construction Symposium

Tuscaloosa, Alabama

April 29, 2010

topics covered today

Construction Equipment Environmental Issues

Air Quality

EPA Non-Road Emission Regulations

Engine Technologies

State Initiatives

Contracts and Bid Specification

Noise

Greenhouse Gases

Topics Covered Today
off highway equipment
Off-Highway Equipment
  • Construction Equipment
    • Mobile Equipment
      • Backhoes
      • Excavators
      • Loaders
      • Etc.
    • Portable Equipment
      • Generators
      • Compressors
      • Pumps
      • Auxiliary Engines
      • Etc.
air quality
Air Quality
  • Particulate Matter (PM)
  • Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
  • Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)
    • Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC)
  • Sulfur
  • Opacity
current non attainment areas
Current Non-Attainment Areas

PM2.5 208 counties

Ozone 347 counties

Total 408 counties

non attainment area facts
Non-Attainment Area Facts
  • 2010+
    • PM2.5 ~237 counties (based on latest EPA data)
    • Ozone ~345 counties (based on latest EPA data)
    • Total ~440-550 counties
slide10
NOx
  • Byproduct of combustion especially at higher temperature
  • Precursor to Ozone
  • Lumped with NMHC in many emission standards
technologies to achieve standards
Technologies to Achieve Standards
  • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
  • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
  • Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA)
  • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
slide14
PM
  • PM, PM10, PM2.5
  • Byproduct of incomplete combustion
  • Classified as an air toxic in California
technologies to achieve standards17
Technologies to Achieve Standards
  • Most NOx emission control strategies contribute to a decrease in PM emissions
  • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - 25%
  • Diesel Particulate Filters - >85%
    • Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategies (VDECS)
tier 3 technical path

Exhaust Gas

Cooled Air from Intercooler

VTG Turbo

Air Inlet

EGR Valve

EGR

Cooler

Compressed Air from Turbocharger

Tier 3 Technical Path
  • NOx reduction:
    • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
  • Particulate Matter (PM) reduction:
    • Advanced Fuel Injection System
interim tier 4 technical path

EGR Valve

Larger EGR Cooler

Interim Tier 4 Technical Path

HC Injection

Exhaust Gas

DPF

DOC

Intake Air Throttle

VTG Turbo, plus Fixed turbo

Air Inlet

  • NOx reduction:
    • Additional Exhaust Recirculation
  • Particulate Matter (PM) reduction:
    • Higher fuel injection pressure
    • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
    • Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)

Compressed Air from Turbocharger

final tier 4 possible technology
Final Tier 4 Possible Technology

Urea Injection

HC Injection

Exhaust Gas

DPF

SCR

DOC

Intake Air Throttle

VTG Turbo, plus Fixed turbo

Air Inlet

EGR Valve

  • Additional NOx reduction with Urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
  • Urea injected into exhaust
  • 80% NOx reduction

EGR

Cooler

Compressed Air from Turbocharger

tier 4 final 2010 on highway 2014 non road selective catalytic reduction scr aftertreatment
Tier 4 Final (2010 On-Highway, 2014 Non-Road) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Aftertreatment
  • Requires urea injection into exhaust
    • Urea freezes at 11°F
sulfur
Sulfur
  • Contributor to SOx (acid rain).
  • Currently transitioning from low sulfur diesel fuel to ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) nation wide.
  • ULSD has 15ppm or less S.
  • All emission control strategies work best using ULSD but engines do not.
other emission reduction strategies no x and pm
Other Emission Reduction Strategies NOx and PM
  • Emulsified Fuel
  • Conversion to Natural Gas
  • Electrification
  • Hybrid Diesel Electric Designs
  • Idling Restrictions
the regulatory movement
The Regulatory Movement
  • California ARB Diesel Regulation Activities
  • New York City Local Law 77
  • Connecticut Clean Air Construction Initiative
  • Massachusetts Projects
  • Virginia - Bid to Contractors
  • Texas TERP
california air resources board arb
California Air Resources Board (ARB)
  • California Air Resources Board (ARB)
    • Portable Diesel Engine Air Toxic Control Measure
    • Stationary Diesel Engine Air Toxic Control Measure
    • Carl Moyer
    • Surplus Off-Road Opt- in for NOx (SOON) Program
    • Off-road (In-Use) Diesel Regulation
      • Up to 32 States are closely watching this regulation
states expressing an interest in adopting california s off road rule

- Connecticut - Delaware - Georgia

- Illinois - Indiana - Kentucky

- Maryland - Michigan - Missouri

- New Jersey - New York - North Carolina

- Ohio - Pennsylvania - Tennessee

- Virginia - District of Columbia

States Expressing an Interest in Adopting California’s Off-Road Rule
the regulatory movement cont
The Regulatory Movement (cont.)
  • Lead Time Requirement for California’s Off-Road Rule to Take Effect in Other States
    • California Adopts Rule
    • States Must go Through their Rule Adoption Process
    • The Rule Must be Identical to California’s
    • The State’s Rule Must Provide a Minimum Two-Year Lead Time After Adoption

Note: States donot need to wait for the California Rule to receive a federal preemption waiver before adopting their own Rule. EPA and the courts have consistently taken the position that a non-California state may adopt California standards that have not received a preemption waiver but that the state cannot enforce the rules until the California preemption waiver is granted.

new york city local law 77
New York City Local Law 77
  • Requires Best Available Technology (BAT) for construction equipment 50 hp or greater operated by agencies and contractors working within the city.
  • BAT is technically feasible EPA or CARB verified devices, or others.
  • Ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) is also required.
connecticut clean air construction initiative
Connecticut Clean Air Construction Initiative
  • CT Clean Air Construction Bid Specification
    • Low Sulfur Diesel
    • Diesel Oxidation Catalysts
    • Diesel Particulate Filters
    • Annual Review of CARB/EPA Verifications
    • New Verifications Included in Following Years’ Bid Specifications
the regulatory movement cont30

Massachusetts

Highway Department, Transportation Authority, Department of Environmental Protection all require at least a DOC on all project equipment.

Example: The Big Dig more than 200 equipment retrofitted with DOC’s

The Regulatory Movement (cont.)
virginia army relocation of national capitol region facilities to fort belvoir va

The following requirements were included in the bid specification:

All Contractor and sub-contractor diesel powered non-road construction equipment with engine horsepower (HP) ratings of 60 HP and above…shall be retrofitted with Emission Control Devices in order to reduce diesel emissions. The Retrofit Emission Control Devices shall consist of oxidation catalysts, or similar retrofit equipment control technology that (1) is included on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Verified Retrofit Technology List and (2) is verified by EPA or certified by the manufacturer to provide a minimum emissions reduction of 20% PM10, 40% CO, and 50% HC.

Tier 2, Tier 3 and Tier 4 Engines Exempt from this Requirement

No contractor will allow any diesel-fueled commercial motor vehicles or diesel non-road construction equipment to idle for a period greater than 5 minutes.

Virginia - Army Relocation of National Capitol Region Facilities to Fort Belvoir, VA
texas emissions reductions plan terp

Texas Emissions Reductions Plan

Provides incentive funding for retrofits and newer cleaner equipment

Voluntary

Texas Emissions Reductions Plan (TERP)
noise

Since the 1972 passage of the Noise Control Act, noise has been regulated at every level of government

National standards have been created to limit noise from vehicles and industrial equipment

States have also required noise elements in planning documents

Local ordinances mainly directed at construction noise are in place in thousands of cities and towns

Most noise is treated at the “nuisance” level and not quantified for enforcement purposes

Consult your local “noise” expert for additional information

Noise
greenhouse gases ghg

CO2, N2O, CH4

EPA mandatory greenhouse gas reporting for large stationary sources starts in 2011 for the 2010 calendar year.

Industrial sources which includes construction sources account for 18% of GHG emissions, construction is in this.

It is only a matter of time before GHG’s from construction equipment will become subject to direct regulation.

Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
thank you

If you have any questions, please contact me:

Drew Delaney

Associates Environmental

16882 Bolsa Chica Street, Suite 202

Huntington Beach, CA 92649

Office: (714) 916-4953 x703

Mobile: (949) 322-3739

Fax: (714) 362-9085

ddelaney@associatesenvironmental.com

Thank You