STATUS OF THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES A SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS REPORT Sreerupa Mitra, Consulant email@example.com
WHY DO RESEARCH ON INCLUSIVE EDUCATION? • To assess progress made so far. • To identify challenges and issues. • To identify best practices/strategies that promote IE. • To create an evidence base for advocacy and lobbying with the Government. • To assess whether the policies, structures and resources are yielding the desired results.
OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY • To identify issues & challenges faced by CWDs in accessing education. • To gather data on current rates of enrolment and retention in preschool and elementary school. • To understand the role of parents & community in the education of CWDs. • To assess the impact of inclusive education on CWDs. • To elicit recommendations from the field.
METHODOLOGY • GUIDELINE QUESTIONNAIRE • PART I-QUANTITATIVE DATA Preschool-CWDs Identified, Enrolled Elementary Education-Identified, Enrolled, Drop out and Out of School CWDs • PART II-QUALITATIVE DATA Enrolment Challenges and Issues Learning Achievements of CWDs Role of Parents & Community Recommendations
COVERAGE • 47 PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS OF CBR FORUM- South-31 East-14 Northeast-2 • Over 7500 CWDs
FINDINGS PRESCHOOL Total No of CWDs Identified- 1225 Male-702; Female-523 Total No of CWDs Enrolled- 593 Male-363; Female-230 Rate of Enrolment-48% Male-52%; Female-44% Highest -Low Vision (71%) Lowest -Cerebral Palsy (30%)
PRESCHOOL EDUCATION • 53% state that lack of parental interest- awareness, fear stigma & neglect. • 59% state that AWWs are not open to enrolling CWDs. • 28% feel that the environment is not conducive-stigmatization, absence of positive atmosphere. • 23% state that anganwadis do not provide barrier free access. • 27% cite travel as a problem, especially when distances are long, terrain is undulating.
PRESCHOOL • Parents display lack of interest, fear neglect. • Problems of travel, absence of inclusive environment, economic necessities. • Feel responsibility ends with enrolment. Some enroll CWDs only to be relieved of them for some part of the day. • Do not monitor the children’s prpgress. • Parents are helping the child to reach the preschool (Kerala and Tamil Nadu). • Follow up on the knowledge & skills taught at school.
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Total No of CWDs Identified- 6452 Male-3704; Female-2744 Total No of CWDs Enrolled- 4541 Male-2644; Female-1913 Rate of Enrolment-70% Male-71%; Female-72% Highest -Low Vision (90%) Lowest -Cerebral Palsy (46%)
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION • Rate Of Drop Out-13% Male-13%;Female-13% • CWDs who had some point been enrolled but dropped out-33% Male-36%;Female-30% • CWDs who have never been to school-67% Male-64%, Female-70%
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION • Enrolment- South-76% (Male:77%,Female:74%) East-54% (Male:55%,Female:56%) Northeast- 35% (Male:10%,Female:67%) • Rate of Drop out- South-11% East-22% Northeast- 8%
CHALLENGES/ISSUES FACED BY CWDs • 73% feel that lack of accessibility is a major hindrance-lack of accessible classrooms, school buildings, toilets, play areas, appropriate seating etc. • 63% state that travel is a major issue-inaccessibility; inability/unwillingness on the part caregivers to accompany CWD. • 67% state that the general environment is not conducive-labeling, impatience, neglect and exclusion.
CHALLENGES/ISSUES • 72% have referred to the question on teachers. Attitude is not always positive. Tend to neglect. Emphasize need for training. Lack of teachers with knowledge about teaching CWDs. • With orientation and sensitization,some teachers are displaying positive attitudes, adapting teaching methods.
IMPACT OF INCLUSION • Attained daily living skills. • Teachers are realizing the abilities of CWDs. • CWDs are competing with non disabled peers and are performing well. • Socialization & communication skills have been enhanced. • CWDs participating in extra curricular activities, demonstrate their talents. • CWDs with sensory disabilities are finding it difficult to cope.
ROLE OF PARENTS • Parents are increasingly displaying more positive attitudes. • Meet the teachers and try to follow up at home what it is taught in schools. • Some parents even hire tutors to support their children’s studies at home. • However, not all parents are positive, tend to think that the education of their children is the responsibility of the school.
ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY • Community members have played a positive role in encouraging CWDs to go to school. • Contributing more effectively through parents’ groups and VECs. • Lobbying with the government. • However, not all respondents share such positive views, they feel that the community is passive and assumes that the responsibility of the education of CWDs lies only with the school.
RECOMMENDATIONS • CWDs- intensification of early childhood interventions, preparation for school. Provision and repair of aids and appliances, Provision of itinerant support to CWDs in school. • Teachers- pre-service and in service training, strengthening of linkages between schools and resource centers. • School -Creating an accessible environment, provision of appropriate TLM, adaptation of the curriculum and evaluation system.
RECOMMENDATIONS • Sensitization of peers, parents, community members and govt. officials. • Building the care giving and advocacy skills of parents. • Enlisting the active participation of the community to act as a watchdog, to encourage and support CWDs, motivate parents.
LIMITATIONS AND GAPS • Response Rate • Responses Not Qualified Enough • Repetitive Questions & Responses • Ambiguity-different Interpretation – Eg. Role of parents – interpreted as what Parent should • Gaps-role Of Other Stakeholders (Govt., health worker), Quality Of Education, Classroom Transactions. • Error In Quantitative Data
SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH & ACTION • Enrolment is not the major issue. • Retention needs to be looked into. • Quality of education has to be assessed • Assessment of classroom transactions • Documentation of best practices • Assessment of learning achievements. • Study and strengthen support of different stakeholder groups.
Thank You CBR Forum 14, C.K. Garden, Wheeler Road Extension St. Thomas Town Post, Bangalore Tel: +91-80-25497387/ 88 firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com www.cbrforum.in