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Psychology 101: Introduction to Psychology. What is Psychology?. Psychology. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Introduction to Psychology is a survey of this field Topics to be explored include: Research methods used in Psychology Learning & Memory

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Psychology 101:Introduction to Psychology

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  • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

  • Introduction to Psychology is a survey of this field

    • Topics to be explored include:

      • Research methods used in Psychology

      • Learning & Memory

      • Language & Intelligence

      • Sensation & Perception

      • Development

      • Personality

      • Social behavior

      • Abnormal behavior

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  • Psychology examines both human and animal behavior

  • This course will focus on human behavior, but will also examine animal behavior in a variety of topics

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What to expect in Psych 101

  • Classes will include lectures, films, discussions and activities

    • Each class will move quickly - come prepared!

      • Do all assigned reading before class

      • Test yourself with the review quizzes found throughout the text

      • As you read, make a few notes summarizing the reading in your own words

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What to expect in Psych 101

  • You are responsible for all material

    • Some material will be covered in both the reading and lecture

    • Some lectures will include new material not in the text

    • Some material will only be presented in the readings

      • Therefore - it is important for you to attend class AND keep up with the reading!

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Course goals

  • Learning about psychology - the science of our mental processes and behavior - is different from experiencing psychology in the real world!

    • In this course, you will develop a knowledge base about psychology, along with the skills to apply that knowledge to your own real-world experiences

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Course goals

  • You will

    • Acquire knowledge about psychology as a scientific study

    • Learn about psychology actively through experience and interactions

    • Expand your skills in critical thinking

    • Develop the skills to recognize and utilize psychological concepts in your every-day experience

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  • If you will miss a class for any reason

    • You are responsible for all information missed

    • Do NOT ask the teaching staff if you missed anything in class. The answer is YES.

      • Get the information you need from another student in the class

    • Do NOT ask for permission to miss class, leave early, or arrive late

      • You are responsible for yourself

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  • Check your email at least once per day

    • Important information will be communicated via email

      • Being aware of this information is part of being prepared for class

  • Check the course website regularly

    • Notes, handouts and other materials will be posted there

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  • Professional classroom behavior

    • Paying attention to the instructor AND your classmates’ questions

    • No cell phones/texting

    • All laptop computers are to be used in the last 2-3 rows only

    • If you are distracting other students in any way, you will be asked to leave.

  • Professional correspondence

    • Address the recipient

    • Use proper English

    • Sign your email

    • Understand that you are not anonymous

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  • 5 midterms and a cumulative final

    • No make-up tests or finals given early

      • If you have taken all 5 midterms, you are exempt from the final

      • If you missed a midterm, you must take the final

      • If you took all 5 midterms and want to take the final, your lowest test grade will be dropped

    • It is your right and responsibility to decide when and why a test might be missed

  • Do NOT contact me regarding a missed test

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  • Tests will cover material from lecture, reading and activities

    • You are responsible for all material

  • To study for tests

    • Review your class notes and your notes on the reading

    • Use the materials on the text’s companion website for further review

    • Use the quizzes on the text’s companion website to practice for our in-class exams

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The science of psychology

  • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

    • Behavior - observable, measurable states and actions

    • Mental processes - subjective states

    • Science - objective approach to answer questions

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Roots of psychology

  • Greek philosophers

    • Plato

      • Nativism

      • Rationalism

    • Aristotle

      • Empiricism

        • Tabula rasa

        • Modern learning theory

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Roots of psychology

  • Renaissance philosophers

    • Descartes

      • Early modern rationalism

    • Locke

      • Early modern empiricist

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Roots of psychology

  • Philosophy meets biology

    • Early studies of the nervous system lead to the discovery of the interaction between the brain and behavior

      • Galvani

      • Muller

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Roots of psychology

  • Charles Darwin

    • Theory of evolution

      • Advantageous variations will improve the chances of passing along genes to the next generation

      • Deleterious variations will decrease the chances of passing along genes to the next generation

    • Theory originally focused on physical traits, but has been applied to behavioral traits as well

      • Evolutionary psychology

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Roots of psychology

  • Pavlov

    • Pioneered the study of learning after his discovery of classical conditioning

  • Freud

    • Proposed a seminal theory on the origins of personality

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Origins of modern psychology

  • Experimental psychology

    • Wilhelm Wundt - “father of psychology”

      • Tested human experience of sensations and perceptions

      • “Introspection”

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Origins of modern psychology

  • Behaviorism

    • Replaced experimental psychology in the 1920s

    • John Watson

      • Study of observable behaviors and outcomes

    • B.F. Skinner

      • Significant contributions to behaviorism and learning theory with studies of animal behavior

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Origins of modern psychology

  • Humanistic psychology

    • 1960s - response to the clinical approach of psychoanalytic psychology

    • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

      • Focused on an individual’s need for safety, support, love and fulfillment

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Origins of modern psychology

  • Cognitive psychology

    • Response to the mechanistic approach of behaviorism

    • Jean Piaget

      • Studied the cognitive and intellectual development of children

    • Many other modern psychologists have contributed to the field with work on perception, learning, memory, language and many other mental processes

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Current perspectives in psychology

  • Psychodynamic perspective

    • How unconscious drives and conflicts determine the adult mind and behavior

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Current perspectives in psychology

  • Biological perspective

    • How the nervous system directs, and is influenced by, behavior.

    • Also considers the role of genetics and evolution in the development of brain and behavior.

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Current perspectives in psychology

  • Behaviorism/Learning perspective

    • How the individual responds to the environment and learns observable responses

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Current perspectives in psychology

  • Cognitive perspective

    • The mental processes involved in encoding, processing, storing and retrieving information

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Current perspectives in psychology

  • Sociocultural perspective

    • How behavior and mental processes vary across situations, environments, cultures and time

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Current perspectives in psychology

  • These perspectives are not strictly separated

    • Most of the study of psychology draws from a few or more of these perspectives in order to reach fully-informed, well-considered conclusions

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Levels of analysis

  • Three main levels of analysis are used together to consider the origins of a given behavior or mental process

    • Biological influences

    • Psychological influences

    • Sociocultural influences

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Levels of analysis

  • Biological influences

    • genetic

    • natural selection

    • gene/environment interactions

    • structural/chemical/endocrine

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Levels of analysis

  • Psychological influences

    • learned responses

    • innate emotional responses

    • cognitive processing and perceptions

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Levels of analysis

  • Socio-cultural influences

    • presence of others

    • cultural, societal, family expectations

    • peer and other group influences

    • compelling environmental forces

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Levels of analysis

  • The interaction between these loci of analysis can explain a behavior or mental process much better than just one perspective could!

    • More perspectives drawn from

    • More details included

    • More questions raised to be answered

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What do psychologists do?

  • Research

    • Biological or Physiological – studies the connections between the brain/nervous system and behavior/mental processes

    • Developmental – studies the various changes that occur between birth and death

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What do psychologists do?

  • Research

    • Cognitive – studies mental processes, such as perception, learning, thinking and language

    • Personality – studies the similarities, differences, stability and change in human traits

    • Social – studies interactions between individuals and groups, and how these interactions affect those involved

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What do psychologists do?

  • Applied psychology

    • Clinical psychologist – assesses, diagnoses and treats people with psychological disorders

    • Counseling psychologist – works with people to help them cope with and overcome social, emotional and psychological challenges

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What do psychologists do?

  • Applied psychology

    • Educational psychologist – works with students in school settings

    • Industrial/organizational psychologist – studies and consults on behavior and environment in the workplace