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Psychology 101: Introduction to Psychology. What is Psychology?. Psychology. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Introduction to Psychology is a survey of this field Topics to be explored include: Research methods used in Psychology Learning & Memory

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Presentation Transcript
  • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  • Introduction to Psychology is a survey of this field
    • Topics to be explored include:
      • Research methods used in Psychology
      • Learning & Memory
      • Language & Intelligence
      • Sensation & Perception
      • Development
      • Personality
      • Social behavior
      • Abnormal behavior
  • Psychology examines both human and animal behavior
  • This course will focus on human behavior, but will also examine animal behavior in a variety of topics
what to expect in psych 101
What to expect in Psych 101
  • Classes will include lectures, films, discussions and activities
    • Each class will move quickly - come prepared!
      • Do all assigned reading before class
      • Test yourself with the review quizzes found throughout the text
      • As you read, make a few notes summarizing the reading in your own words
what to expect in psych 1016
What to expect in Psych 101
  • You are responsible for all material
    • Some material will be covered in both the reading and lecture
    • Some lectures will include new material not in the text
    • Some material will only be presented in the readings
      • Therefore - it is important for you to attend class AND keep up with the reading!
course goals
Course goals
  • Learning about psychology - the science of our mental processes and behavior - is different from experiencing psychology in the real world!
    • In this course, you will develop a knowledge base about psychology, along with the skills to apply that knowledge to your own real-world experiences
course goals8
Course goals
  • You will
    • Acquire knowledge about psychology as a scientific study
    • Learn about psychology actively through experience and interactions
    • Expand your skills in critical thinking
    • Develop the skills to recognize and utilize psychological concepts in your every-day experience
  • If you will miss a class for any reason
    • You are responsible for all information missed
    • Do NOT ask the teaching staff if you missed anything in class. The answer is YES.
      • Get the information you need from another student in the class
    • Do NOT ask for permission to miss class, leave early, or arrive late
      • You are responsible for yourself
  • Check your email at least once per day
    • Important information will be communicated via email
      • Being aware of this information is part of being prepared for class
  • Check the course website regularly
    • Notes, handouts and other materials will be posted there
  • Professional classroom behavior
    • Paying attention to the instructor AND your classmates’ questions
    • No cell phones/texting
    • All laptop computers are to be used in the last 2-3 rows only
    • If you are distracting other students in any way, you will be asked to leave.
  • Professional correspondence
    • Address the recipient
    • Use proper English
    • Sign your email
    • Understand that you are not anonymous
  • 5 midterms and a cumulative final
    • No make-up tests or finals given early
      • If you have taken all 5 midterms, you are exempt from the final
      • If you missed a midterm, you must take the final
      • If you took all 5 midterms and want to take the final, your lowest test grade will be dropped
    • It is your right and responsibility to decide when and why a test might be missed
  • Do NOT contact me regarding a missed test
  • Tests will cover material from lecture, reading and activities
    • You are responsible for all material
  • To study for tests
    • Review your class notes and your notes on the reading
    • Use the materials on the text’s companion website for further review
    • Use the quizzes on the text’s companion website to practice for our in-class exams
the science of psychology
The science of psychology
  • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
    • Behavior - observable, measurable states and actions
    • Mental processes - subjective states
    • Science - objective approach to answer questions
roots of psychology
Roots of psychology
  • Greek philosophers
    • Plato
      • Nativism
      • Rationalism
    • Aristotle
      • Empiricism
        • Tabula rasa
        • Modern learning theory
roots of psychology16
Roots of psychology
  • Renaissance philosophers
    • Descartes
      • Early modern rationalism
    • Locke
      • Early modern empiricist
roots of psychology17
Roots of psychology
  • Philosophy meets biology
    • Early studies of the nervous system lead to the discovery of the interaction between the brain and behavior
      • Galvani
      • Muller
roots of psychology18
Roots of psychology
  • Charles Darwin
    • Theory of evolution
      • Advantageous variations will improve the chances of passing along genes to the next generation
      • Deleterious variations will decrease the chances of passing along genes to the next generation
    • Theory originally focused on physical traits, but has been applied to behavioral traits as well
      • Evolutionary psychology
roots of psychology19
Roots of psychology
  • Pavlov
    • Pioneered the study of learning after his discovery of classical conditioning
  • Freud
    • Proposed a seminal theory on the origins of personality
origins of modern psychology
Origins of modern psychology
  • Experimental psychology
    • Wilhelm Wundt - “father of psychology”
      • Tested human experience of sensations and perceptions
      • “Introspection”
origins of modern psychology21
Origins of modern psychology
  • Behaviorism
    • Replaced experimental psychology in the 1920s
    • John Watson
      • Study of observable behaviors and outcomes
    • B.F. Skinner
      • Significant contributions to behaviorism and learning theory with studies of animal behavior
origins of modern psychology22
Origins of modern psychology
  • Humanistic psychology
    • 1960s - response to the clinical approach of psychoanalytic psychology
    • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
      • Focused on an individual’s need for safety, support, love and fulfillment
origins of modern psychology23
Origins of modern psychology
  • Cognitive psychology
    • Response to the mechanistic approach of behaviorism
    • Jean Piaget
      • Studied the cognitive and intellectual development of children
    • Many other modern psychologists have contributed to the field with work on perception, learning, memory, language and many other mental processes
current perspectives in psychology
Current perspectives in psychology
  • Psychodynamic perspective
    • How unconscious drives and conflicts determine the adult mind and behavior
current perspectives in psychology25
Current perspectives in psychology
  • Biological perspective
    • How the nervous system directs, and is influenced by, behavior.
    • Also considers the role of genetics and evolution in the development of brain and behavior.
current perspectives in psychology26
Current perspectives in psychology
  • Behaviorism/Learning perspective
    • How the individual responds to the environment and learns observable responses
current perspectives in psychology27
Current perspectives in psychology
  • Cognitive perspective
    • The mental processes involved in encoding, processing, storing and retrieving information
current perspectives in psychology28
Current perspectives in psychology
  • Sociocultural perspective
    • How behavior and mental processes vary across situations, environments, cultures and time
current perspectives in psychology29
Current perspectives in psychology
  • These perspectives are not strictly separated
    • Most of the study of psychology draws from a few or more of these perspectives in order to reach fully-informed, well-considered conclusions
levels of analysis
Levels of analysis
  • Three main levels of analysis are used together to consider the origins of a given behavior or mental process
    • Biological influences
    • Psychological influences
    • Sociocultural influences
levels of analysis31
Levels of analysis
  • Biological influences
    • genetic
    • natural selection
    • gene/environment interactions
    • structural/chemical/endocrine
levels of analysis32
Levels of analysis
  • Psychological influences
    • learned responses
    • innate emotional responses
    • cognitive processing and perceptions
levels of analysis33
Levels of analysis
  • Socio-cultural influences
    • presence of others
    • cultural, societal, family expectations
    • peer and other group influences
    • compelling environmental forces
levels of analysis34
Levels of analysis
  • The interaction between these loci of analysis can explain a behavior or mental process much better than just one perspective could!
    • More perspectives drawn from
    • More details included
    • More questions raised to be answered
what do psychologists do
What do psychologists do?
  • Research
    • Biological or Physiological – studies the connections between the brain/nervous system and behavior/mental processes
    • Developmental – studies the various changes that occur between birth and death
what do psychologists do36
What do psychologists do?
  • Research
    • Cognitive – studies mental processes, such as perception, learning, thinking and language
    • Personality – studies the similarities, differences, stability and change in human traits
    • Social – studies interactions between individuals and groups, and how these interactions affect those involved
what do psychologists do37
What do psychologists do?
  • Applied psychology
    • Clinical psychologist – assesses, diagnoses and treats people with psychological disorders
    • Counseling psychologist – works with people to help them cope with and overcome social, emotional and psychological challenges
what do psychologists do38
What do psychologists do?
  • Applied psychology
    • Educational psychologist – works with students in school settings
    • Industrial/organizational psychologist – studies and consults on behavior and environment in the workplace