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Barry Schwartz

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  1. Barry Schwartz • Study of historical reputations • Not just present politics • Memory studies not just about why but how collective memory is constructed • Need to theorize on both variations & explain persistance

  2. Time Maps & Framing/Containing Memory origin prehistory history

  3. Today’s Class • Lecture & Discussion Themes • Time Maps & Collective Memory (conclusion) • If time: begin thinking about Collected Personal Memories vs. Collective Memory • Film Screening

  4. “Time Maps” & the Social Shaping of Memory (E. Zerubavel) • Questions of relevance • Long and short term • Eventful and uneventful periods • Connections • Discontinuities

  5. Analyzing the Structures of Socio-Mental memory traditions • conventional ways of stringing memories together into culturally-meaningful narratives • strategies to create the illusion of historical continuity (bridges) • genealogical structures of ancestry & descent • “watersheds” that separate one period from the next & inflating mental divides • The social construction of “beginnings” (origin “myths” and the legitimation of claims about the past)

  6. Establish connections in narratives, scenarios, plotlines Mental historical outlooks, Selective use of history, Often anticipate future Progress narratives (1)Plotlines & Narrative Forms

  7. Decline narratives Both imply single direction Plotlines & Narrative Forms

  8. Zigzag Narratives • Conversion • Recovery • Rise & fall

  9. Evolutionary narratives • Unilinear (deterministic) • Multilinear (ex. Cladograms--branching)

  10. Circles (Cycles), • recurrence

  11. Cycles (Rhymes)

  12. Zodiac & Lunar Calendar (Chinese & Western Calendar approximations)

  13. Western (Solar-Lunar combo.) Calendar Systems • Combination of Bablyonian & Greco-Roman astrological & astronomical theories & myths • 24 hour day & 7 day week • nomenclature based on cycle named for 7 heavenly bodies (visible with ancient technologies) & associations with deities in Greco-Roman & other pantheons • Sunday (heavenly body ascendant in first hour of first day--Sun) • Monday (moon) • Tuesday (Mars—God of War) • Wednesday (Mercury) • Thursday (Jupiter) • Friday (Venus) • Saturday (Saturn)

  14. Density Variations --Mountains and valleys • eventful vs. uneventful moments in the past • Unevenly distributed

  15. Commemgram example • Eventful times, • Multiple pasts

  16. Tasbaski Preparations-Senegal Tabaski (Wolof) –l Aïd-el-Kebir

  17. 2-Creating Historical Continuity by bridging gaps • Linking noncontiguous points in time or place to establish continuity • Same place • Same things (relics & memorabilia) • Imitation of the past (ex. Courtroom etiquette religious ritual) • “same” time (commemorative holidays, reenactments, seasonal identity

  18. Musical terms Legato (connected) Staccato (breaks) Historical “Phrasing” in Narratives

  19. 3--Mapping connections with the past through ancestry & descent (models for contact chains) • Not always based on consanguinity • historical contact chains • continuous structures

  20. Mnemonic pasting

  21. Interconnectedness • Genealogical Distance (consanguinity) • Ancestral depth (# of generations)

  22. Phylogenetic Tree

  23. Time and Social Distance Not just people Can be practices, things, events

  24. Cousinhood & Ancestral Depth

  25. Monogenist & Polygenist Models of Human Descent • Socio-mnemonic dimensions of ancestry

  26. Another look at Phylogeny

  27. Divergence Modelling

  28. 4-Discontinuities: Mnemonic Cutting & Shaping Memory • Conceptualizing Discontinuities (breaks)

  29. Assimilation & Difference • Periods, epochs as mnemonic transformation of historical continuum

  30. History & Prehistory in Mnemonic Traditions--decapitation

  31. History & Prehistory in Mnemonic Traditions • Example: Pre-contact and Post contact history of N. America

  32. Lumping & Splitting in Narratives

  33. 5-Beginnings and Claims based on the Past

  34. Posture of Neutrality? • Should we • assume a collective memory or identity exists? • assume a collectivity exists that shares a memory? • Consider ideology, will? • ex. Survey of Germans about their identity & effects on politics • Ex. I am Canadian beer commercial A screen capture of Joe Canadian from an I am Canadian commercial, with the maple leaf of the Canadian flag projected on the background

  35. Collective Memory (vs. collected) • Patterns of socialization not reducible to individual psycho-social processes? • groups provide conditions and distinctions through which particular events are defined as consequential • Symbols, institutions, technologies etc. considered somewhat “autonomous” • Memory performed through language, narrative, dialogue, genres, …shared practices • Collective memory AS communication

  36. Reading Presentations • Foucault,Popular memory Group, pp. 252-260 • Ranger, Petterson, Sennett, pp. 275- • Schudson, Lang & Lang, Ducharme & Fine, pp. 287-299 • Kantsteiner, Alexander pp 300-310. • Assmann, Connerton 334-342 • Postponed: Gadamer, 180-183, Burke, Megillpp. 188-197

  37. Planning Assignments • Assigning Second reading presentations • Discussion of strategies for finding case study & term assignment projects

  38. Films • representing memory narratives (position of the story-teller • Positioning the researcher (Loyalities) • Next week: • Presenting a narrative from the point of view of participants (Sleeping Tigers: Asahi Baseball Story)