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Law and citizenship National identity based on place of birth, not patriarchy-- Challenges notions of citizenship found in Europe and for divorced married women, in the U.S. prior to 1933 Encourages heterosexual reproductive politics Challenges the Catholic view of celibacy

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law and citizenship
Law and citizenship
  • National identity based on place of birth, not patriarchy--
  • Challenges notions of citizenship found in Europe and for divorced married women, in the U.S. prior to 1933
  • Encourages heterosexual reproductive politics
  • Challenges the Catholic view of celibacy
penal and civil code changes in france and germany
Penal and Civil Code changes in France and Germany
  • Reduces penalties for infanticide
  • Criminalizes abortion, but rarely prosecuted
  • Decriminalizes homosexuality among consenting adults in most countries—now a police matter rather than a moral matter
  • At same time Civil Codes maintain patriarchy at its core, and these laws influence Latin America
how did these laws affect women s ability to work
How did these laws affect women’s ability to work?
  • Depended upon women’s ethnicity and race
  • Married women prevented from going into business without her husband’s permission and had to turn income over to husband
  • Indigenous women always worked outside the home regardless of marital status, as did other non-white women
  • Women able to work in rural areas more easily than in urban areas
  • Urbanization in the 19th and 20th centuries until the 1970s restricted, rather than encouraged women to work
the napoleonic civil code of 1804
The Napoleonic Civil Code of 1804
  • http://www.napoleon-series.org/reference/political/code/book1/title05.cfm#chapter6
gender and latin american constitutions
Gender and Latin American Constitutions
  • Many constitutions enacted in the 19th century, and in many countries rewritten in the 20th century
  • US constitution often the model with executive, legislative and judiciary branches of government
  • Men specifically identified as those allowed to vote, although often limited by property and literacy requirements
  • Social citizenship rarely identified as specifically male---what is social citizenship
argentine constitution of 1853
Argentine Constitution of 1853
  • Art. 14.Todos los habitantes de la Nación gozan de los siguientes derechos conforme a las leyes que reglamenten su ejercicio; a saber: de trabajar y ejercer toda industria lícita; de navegar y comerciar;de peticionar a las autoridades;de entrar, permanecer, transitar y salir del territorio argentino; de publicar sus ideas por la prensa sin censura previa;de usar y disponer de su propiedad;de asociarse con fines útiles;de profesar libremente su culto;de enseñar y aprender.
translation
Translation
  • Article 14—All inhabitants of the Nation enjoy the following rights according to the laws that regulate their implementation: the right to exercise and labor in all legal industries; the right to navigate and trade; the right to petition all authorities; to enter, remain and cross the territory of Argentina; the right to publish one’s ideas without prior censorship; the right to use and dispose of one’s property; the freedom of religion; the right to teach and learn.
article 20
Article 20
  • Art. 20.Los extranjeros gozan en el territorio de la Nación de todos los derechos civiles del ciudadano; pueden ejercer su industria, comercio y profesión; poseer bienes raíces, comprarlos y enejenarlos; navegar los ríos y costas; ejercer líbremente su culto; testar y casarse conforme a las leyes.
translation10
Translation
  • Article 20 All foreigners residing in the National Territory enjoy the same civil rights as all citizens; they may exercise their industry, commerce or profession; they may possess, purchase, or sell property; navigate rivers and coasts; enjoy freedom of religion; write wills and marry according to the laws.
contemporary statistics
Contemporary Statistics
  • Percentage of women in the active population (1970 & 1990)
  • Latin America : 20 % (1970) ; 34 % (1990)
  • Caribbean: 32% (1970) ; 43 % (1990)Sources: International Labor Organization (United Nations)
  • Percentage of female and male active population by sector of activity (1994)
  • Central America : Agriculture : women: 7 % ; men: 41 %Industry: women: 19 % ; men: 23 %Services: women: 74 % ; men: 36 %
  • South America:Agriculture : women: 10 % ; men: 27 %Industry: women: 14 % ; men: 28 %Services: women: 76 % ; men: 45 %
  • Caribbean: Agriculture : women: 11 % ; men: 23 %Industry: women: 12 % ; men: 28 %Services: women: 77 % ; men: 49 %Sources: International Labor Organization (United Nations)
slide14

Percentage of women (15 years old and more) in the total active population (1994)

ARGENTINA: 29 %

BOLIVIA: 25 %

BRAZIL: 28 %

CHILE: 29 %

COLOMBIA: 23 %

COSTA RICA: 22 %

CUBA: 33 %

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: 15 %

EL SALVADOR: 28 %

ECUADOR: 19 %

GUATEMALA: 18 %

HONDURAS: 21 %

MEXICO: 28 %

NICARAGUA: 30 %

PANAMA: 28 %

PARAGUAY: 20 %

PERU: 24 %

PUERTO RICO: 29 %

URUGUAY: 32 %

VENEZUELA: 28 %  Sources: International Labor Organization (United Nations)

Distribution of the active population (1994)

women and sexuality
Women and Sexuality
  • Impact of French Revolution
  • Significance of Church-State controversies
    • Lead to civil marriage and divorce laws
    • Changes relations within relationships
    • When added to decriminalization of homosexuality, opens spaces for non-reproductive sexualities
    • Dates of civil marriage laws often reflected church-state tensions rather than feminism:
      • Guatemala 1823
      • Uruguay 1837
      • Mexico 1859 Peru 1898
      • Argentina 1888 Chile 2004