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Introduction to Cartographic Design

Introduction to Cartographic Design

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Introduction to Cartographic Design

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  1. Introduction to Cartographic Design Richard Taketa Associate Professor Department of Geography San Jose State University

  2. Basic Map Design • Visual organization • Improve legibility • Focus attention • Maps do not have a natural sequence • Design can guide the map reader • Make the reader’s job easier

  3. Today’s Design Topics • Figure-ground • Layout • Generalization • Symbolization

  4. Figure-Ground

  5. Figure-Ground • Graphic characteristics • Some elements as figures • Other elements as background

  6. Figure-Ground Can’t easily distinguish elements

  7. Figure-Ground • How people see graphics • Elements • Contrast • Contour • Closure • Enclosure • Visual organization

  8. Contrast More contrast = stronger figure

  9. Contrast Not just the darker element

  10. Contour Sharper contour (edge) = stronger figure

  11. Closure Closed element = stronger figure

  12. Enclosure More enclosed = stronger figure

  13. Create Visual Levels

  14. Figure-Ground

  15. Figure-Ground

  16. Figure-Ground

  17. Figure-Ground

  18. Layout

  19. Layout • Arrangement of map elements • Objectives • Visual balance • Structure

  20. Centering is a good starting point...

  21. Poor balance = harder to read

  22. Assign appropriate emphasis

  23. Text Placement: Figural Object

  24. Text Placement: Background Object

  25. Text Placement: Enhance Pattern

  26. Text Placement: Hide Pattern

  27. Generalization

  28. Generalization • Level of detail • Function of • Purpose • Scale • Graphic limits • Quality of data

  29. Generalization • Simplification • Selection • Classification • Symbolization • Induction

  30. GIS Data Detailed

  31. Detail a Problem for Symbolization

  32. Simplifying for Clarity Loss of information…negligible

  33. Detail Changes with Scale

  34. Symbolization

  35. Symbolization • Most maps involve abstract symbols • Represent features of interest • Can’t always show them as they actually look

  36. Graphic Variables • Shape • Size • Color • Hue • Lightness • Saturation • Orientation • Pattern • Texture

  37. Levels of Measurement • Nominal • Ordinal • Interval • Ratio

  38. Symbolization & Measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval/Ratio x x x x - x x x x x x Shape Size Color Hue Lightness Saturation Orientation Pattern Texture

  39. Symbolization

  40. Symbolization • Can affect ability to see patterns • Complex symbolization and classifications can obscure

  41. Map Design Summary • Organize graphic information • Provide structure • Make the map legible • Focus the reader’s attention

  42. Guide the reader...

  43. Contact Information Richard Taketa Department of Geography San Jose State University One Washington Square San Jose, CA 95192-0116 408-924-5425 rtaketa@email.sjsu.edu