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Action Research – Ethical Issues. CARN Study Day Liverpool Hope University May 2005. What is research?. A way of finding things out Finding out how to do things better Finding out why we do things the way we do Gaining an understanding of how things work or happen

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action research ethical issues

Action Research – Ethical Issues

CARN Study Day

Liverpool Hope University

May 2005

slide2
What is research?
  • A way of finding things out
  • Finding out how to do things better
  • Finding out why we do things the way we do
  • Gaining an understanding of how things work or happen
  • Challenging our assumptions
slide3
Action Research
  • Impacting our practice
  • Reviewing our practice
  • Justifying our practice
  • Amending our practice
  • Improving our practice
  • Sharing best practice
slide4
Research Ethics
  • Carrying out research in a morally responsible way
  • Not disadvantaging anyone by the research
  • Respecting others’ opinions and rights
  • Working within an ethical code
  • Seeking permission/access
slide5
Ethics

principle

honest

right

moral

proper

honourable

fair

decent

legal

slide6
Hippocratic Oath

- the foundation for medical ethics;

“first do no harm”

slide7
Data Protection Act 1998

This gives priority to personal privacy

and protection of personal information.

Anyone who wants to collect personal

data must say how the information will

be used, who will have access to it, and

that it will not be stored or shared any

longer than necessary.

(This also relies upon the integrity of

the researcher)

slide8
The Integrity of the Researcher
  • Personal / professional ethics
  • Personal / professional responsibility
  • Professional code of conduct will require
  • adherence to ethical guidelines and
  • principles.
  • Ethics committee
  • Personal responsibility to be honest
  • throughout.
slide9
The Power Imbalance
  • Unethical to;
  • suppress data or skew findings.
  • video or photograph without consent.
  • breach confidentiality.
slide10
There are some grey areas though……...

Ethnography - capturing behaviour when

people do not feel they are being observed.

Participation or exploitation?

Covert or overt observation?

Non-participant or participant observer?

A participant could be wielding influence…

A non-participant could be projecting /

offering own viewpoint...

slide11
Both would argue they were being

academically rigorous and ethically

sensitive.

Personal integrity is crucial -

and acknowledge possible bias or

influence in findings.

slide12
Ethical Guidelines

Respect participants.

Seek permission / informed consent

Explanation from researcher as to nature

and purpose of research.

Recorded personal data will be destroyed

as soon as appropriate.

slide13
Ethical Guidelines

Responsibility to participant where

project involves sensitive personal

disclosure.

Maintaining confidentiality.

Always be aware that individuals have a

right to access information organisations

may be keeping on them.

slide14
‘Those who contribute to research findings

as informants or as research subjects, should

be no worse off at the end of their participation

than they were when they started.’

Denscombe, M. (2003)

The Good Research Guide O.U. Press

slide16
Methodology
  • Qualitative research- looking in-depth at what happens and gathering opinions and interpretations (narrative)
  • Quantitative research – measuring, categorising, drawing conclusions, making causal links (numerical)
slide17
Spirituality

8%

Severance

14%

Connectedness

78%

slide18
Some considerations:
  • Relationship of researcher to participants
  • Prior relationship
  • 3. Assumptions
  • 4. Influence
slide19
Further considerations:
  • ‘Control group’ interviewed by a stranger
  • Original participants interviewed by a
  • stranger
  • External supervision
  • Triangulation
  • Integrity of the researcher
slide20
‘I only want what is in your mind

and in your heart’

David Tasma

1947

‘I’ll be a window in your home’

slide21
Research offers the world a

window onto our practice

Action research flings the windows open

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