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Shen et al. 2008 Proposed conservation landscape for Giant Pandas in the Mishan Mtns. China Cons Biol 22:1144-53 . Core Habitat CH 1,3,5,6,8 25% chance of extinction in 100yrs Recommend CORRIDORS PL1 -4. OUTLINE Corridors as a conservation tool benefits costs recent evidence

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Shen et al. 2008

Proposed conservation landscape for Giant Pandas in the Mishan Mtns. China

Cons Biol 22:1144-53

Core Habitat

CH 1,3,5,6,8

25% chance of extinction in 100yrs

Recommend

CORRIDORS

PL1 -4


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OUTLINE

Corridors as a conservation tool

benefits

costs

recent evidence

large scale examples


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MOVEMENT CORRIDORS: CONSERVATION BARGAINS OR POOR INVESTMENTS?

Simberloff et al 1992 Conservation Biology 493-504


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“a wildlife corridor is a linear landscape element which serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

McEuan 1993


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Benefits of corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

1962- species-area relations

Corridors increase area

linking reserves should increase species richness

1974 - equilibrium theory of island biogeography

Corridors increase immigration

Equilibrium number of species should increase

Corridors may aid dispersal,

allow recolonization or rescue of populations,

increase genetic diversity, prevent inbreeding

reduce stochastic effects

---> general recommendation for reserve design


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Benefits of corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Beier 1993,1995 - cougars in southern California

150km2

Hwy

75km2

Santa Ana mountains 2070 km2 - 20 adults


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Beier 1993, 1995 serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Radiocollared cougars

Movement paths

use riparian corridors

Mortality

around housing developments

roads

Models found

- cougars will not persist in the small patches

- population in large patch will not persist without immigration from Palomar Range

Concluded A CORRIDOR IS ESSENTIAL


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Benefits of corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Maintain pathways for migratory species

Eg quetzals in Costa Rica

Protected breeding habitat

Monteverde Reserve

Proposed corridors

Low elevation habitat used during non-breeding season


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Benefits of corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Maintain connectivity for ecological processeses

Eg pollination by bees (Rudbeckia) and butterflies (Lantana)

SOURCE

Source pollen dusted with dayglo powder

Townsend and Levey 2005 Ecol 86: 466-75


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Benefits of corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

1 Aid dispersal

2. Allows migration

Maintains ecological processes

4. Allows range shifts due to climate change

5. Provision of escape routes from fire

6. Opportunity to avoid predation


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Simberloff (1992): much cited paper serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

MOVEMENT CORRIDORS:

CONSERVATION BARGAINS OR POOR INVESTMENTS?

Data on corridor use is limited/

experiments are not rigorous

Data on consequences of corridors for demography and genetic structure is sparse

Costs of corridors may be better spent on making larger reserves -


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Hazards of corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

  • Corridors may provide avenue for catastrophes (predators, fire, disease)

    corridors may attract edge-inhabiting predators

    isolated reserves quarantine disease

  • Corridors may act as entry route for exotics

    corridors may favour movement of introduced spp

    corridors may be reservoir for weeds

  • Corridors may function as sinks

  • Corridors with no buffer zone may expose migrants to danger

    Exposure to domestic animals, roads, etc

    5. Corridors may facilitate poaching/trapping


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Corridors: a philosophical slant serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Corridors are easily understood.

Is it good conservation practise to sell the easiest program in the absence of evidence it is the most effective?

Is it beneficial for people to feel that they are doing something important for conservation in the absence of evidence they are doing anything


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17 years after Simberloff serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Do corridors provide connectivity?

Approaches

do animals/plants use corridors

do corridors influence demography

do corridors influence genetic structure

do corridors influence diversity


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do animals/plants use corridors? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Experimental corridors in S Carolina

Corridors promote movement in diverse taxa


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do animals/plants use corridors? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Experimental corridors in S Carolina

Obs

Birds usually fly parallel to edge

Model

Predict bird and seed movement in connected/unconnected patches

Expt

Feed birds-track seeds of wax myrtle


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do corridors influence demography? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Control corridor fragment

5700 individuals

22600 captures

Survival higher in corridor linked grids

Population sizeless variable in corridor linked grids

Coffman et al 2001 Oikos 93: 3-21


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do corridors influence demography? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Mountain pygmy possum

Contiguous Fragmented by ski development

Males can’t move

--> lower female survival

and skewed sex ratio

+ TUNNEL

normal sex ratio and survival

Females winter at higher elevation

Males move to lower elevations


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do corridors influence genetic structure? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

  • Red squirrels

  • Deforestation in 19th century -->

    • Dwindling poplations in small isolated patches

    • Populations become genetically distinct

  • Reforestation 1950’s --->

  • Kielder forest

  • links some populations

  • Genetic data - 1920’s museum skins

  • - 2001 resampled populations


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do corridors influence genetic structure? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Red squirrels

Fragmented Linked by stepping stone corridor

Reforestation has allowed genetic mixing of Scottish and Cumbrian populations


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do corridors influence species diversity? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Gilbert et al. 1998 ProcRSoc 265: 577-82

Moss micro-arthropod communities on rocks

What is predicted?


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do corridors influence species diversity? serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Gilbert et al. 1998 ProcRSoc 265: 577-82

Moss micro-arthropod communities on rocks

What is predicted?


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Corridors and connectivity serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Diverse taxa do use corridors

- reasonable evidence

Corridors can influence demography

- some evidence

Corridors can influence genetic processes

- some evidence

Corridors can influence diversity

- some evidence

Despite criticisms

Corridors may be best solution to a complex problem


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Conservation corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Example 1. The Terai Arc

250 bengal tigers

11 protected areas


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Conservation corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Example 1. The Terai Arc

250 bengal tigers

WWF+ partners

Goal - link the 11 protected areas

Khata corridor - 3 km long

Links Royal Bardia to Kataniaghat

2001 - restoration commenced

community forests and plantations

2004 - Elephant and tiger using corridor


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Conservation corridors serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Example 2. The Mesoamerican corridor

Wildlife Conservation Society initiative

7 countries

Chiapas, Mexico to

Darrien Gap, Panama

1996 GIS model linking reserves, remaining forest

Progress slow

Costa Rica 39

Mexico/Belize 4


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Corridors- unresolved questions serves as a linkage between historically connected habitat, and is meant to facilitate movement between these natural areas”

Which spp use corridors? Which benefit

How do residency and movement rates differ among taxa

“passage” vs “corridor dwellers”

How does utilization change with shape, width, length, landscape?

Will corridors promote the movement of exotics and disease?


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Gibert ert al. 1998 Corridors maintain species richness in the fragmented landscapes of a microecosystem. P Roy Soc Lond B 265: 577-582

Damschen, EI et al. 2006 Corridors increase plant species richness at large scales

SCIENCE 313: 1284-6

Shepherd, B and Whittington, J 2006. Response of wolves to corridor restoration and human use management ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY 11

Dixon, JD et al. 2006. Effectiveness of a regional corridor in connecting two Florida black bear populations CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 20: 155-162

Martensen et al. 2008. Relative effects of fragment size and connectivity on bird community ib the Atlantic Rainforest BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 141: 2184-92

Lees AC and Peres CA 2008 Conservation value of remnant riparian corridors of varying quality for Amazonian birds and mammals Conservation Biology 22 439-449

Beier P et al. 2008 Forks in the road: choices in procedures for designing wildland linkages. CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 22: 836-51


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Points for discussion the fragmented landscapes of a microecosystem. P Roy Soc Lond B 265: 577-582

Corridors - are benefits taxon specific

- how can we examine costs

- what do we want them to do

- how do we design them