The Hybrid Car:A look at the future of cars By: Kenneth Barnett
What makes a Hybrid? • A hybrid is anything that uses two or mores sources directly or indirectly to provide propulsion • Examples of hybrid vehicles being used: • Gasoline-pedal: • Moped • Diesel-electric: • Locomotives • Buses • Submarines (can also be nuclear-electric) • Gasoline-electric: • Passenger Vehicles
Parallel Hybrid • Has a fuel tank that supplies gas to the engine like a regular car • It also has a set of batteries that run an electric motor • Both the engine and electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time.
Series Hybrid • The fuel tank goes to the engine, but the engine turns a generator • Then the generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission • The gasoline engine does not directly power the car
Components of a Hybrid • Gasoline engine • Much like our engines but smaller and is made with advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency • Fuel Tank • Energy storing device for the gasoline engine • Gas has a much larger density than the batteries • Example: 1,000 pounds of batteries store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas
Continuing Components • Electric Motor • Advance electronics allow it to act as either an motor or a generator • Example: When needed it can take power from the batteries to accelerate the car. Or as the car slows down it acts as a generator and returns that energy to the batteries • Generator • Similar to an electric motor, just it acts only to produce electrical power • Mainly in series hybrids
Continuing Components • Batteries • Energy storage device for the electric motor • Transmission • Transmission on a hybrid performs the same as a transmission on our cars • How a transmission works is that it takes power from the engine or motor and sends to the driveshaft which turns your axle to move your car
Hybrid Performance • The key for the hybrid car is its ability to use a smaller engine • A conventional engine is sized for peak power requirement, when a study shows that most drivers reach this less than 1% of our driving time • The hybrid engine is sized for running at the average power not the peak. But when it does reach that point that it needs help up a hill or to pass someone, it draws extra power from the batteries and the electric motor to get the job done.
Hybrid Efficiency • Recovers energy and stores it into the battery • Regenerative braking • Sometimes it will shut the engine off • Reduces aerodynamic drag • Low rolling resistance tires • Stiffer and inflated more • 1/2 the drag on the road • Lightweight Materials • Carbon fiber • Metals • Aluminum • Magnesium
Hybrid Maintenance • Warranties • The average warranty for a hybrid now is around either 8 yr/ 100,000 mile or even 10 year/ 150,000 mile • Brake pads • Regenerative braking • Batteries • $6800 for new Toyota and Honda hybrid • But batteries tested to go for 180,000 miles and some