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Session 4. The New York Control Area (NYCA). Bob Waldele Manager – Operations Engineering Operations & Reliability NYISO. Robert Waldele mini-bio. 33 years with NYPP and NYISO (transmission planning, dispatcher training, operations engineering)

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session 4

Session 4.

The New York Control Area (NYCA)

Bob Waldele

Manager – Operations Engineering

Operations & Reliability

NYISO

robert waldele mini bio
Robert Waldele mini-bio
  • 33 years with NYPP and NYISO (transmission planning, dispatcher training, operations engineering)
  • BSEE(Comp. Sci., Power) Northwestern University
  • Railfan/Photographer, Model Railroader (garden)
  • Church Organist and Choir Director
  • Rumored to have caused first Blackout (Nov. 9, 1965) while still in high school
  • Member of “Operator Tools, Training, and EMS Performance” Team of the NERC 2003 Blackout Investigation Task Force
  • Active participant in numerous IEEE-PES, NPCC, NERC and EPRI study and support groups
annie liebovitz photographer
Annie Liebovitz – photographer

“Success didn’t spoil me, I’ve always been insufferable.”

the new york control area nyca
The New York Control Area (NYCA)
  • Location of major facilities
    • Generation
    • Transmission system & constraints
  • The New York ISO
    • Commercial responsibilities
    • Normal operation responsibilities
    • Emergency operation responsibilities
  • Transmission interfaces (“flowgates”)
    • Likely transmission constraints in NYCA
    • Ties with neighboring systems
    • OASIS
slide5

New York State

Transmission System

(230 kV and above)

Chateauguay

Willis

Moses

Massena

Plattsburgh

Adirondack

Oswego Complex

Somerset

Rotterdam

Niagara

Sta. 80

Clay

Marcy

New Scotland

Edic

Pannell

Porter

Alps

Huntley

Stolle Rd.

Lafayette

Gilboa

Meyer

Leeds

Pleasant Valley

Dunkirk

Watercure

Fraser

Hillside

Oakdale

Coopers Corners

Roseton

E. Fishkill

Rock Tavern

Buchanan

Ramapo

Legend:

Millwood

765 kV

Sprainbrook Dunwoodie

Homer City

500 kV

Shore Rd.

345 kV

Farragut

E. Garden City

W49St/Rainey

Goethals

230 kV

what does the nyiso do
What does the NYISO do?
  • The New York ISO
    • Commercial responsibilities
      • Administers the Tariffs
        • Open Access Transmission Tariff (“OATT”)
        • Market Services Tariff
    • Agreements with Market Participants
    • NYISO has operational responsibilities to insure the reliability of the NYCA and its interconnections
nyiso markets
NYISO Markets
  • Energy- in two separate markets:
    • Day-Ahead
    • Real-Time
  • 2 direct bid Ancillary Services
    • Operating Reserve
    • Regulation
  • Generation Capacity- ICAP
  • Cost Based Ancillary Services
  • Congestion Protection- the “TCC”
more commercial information
More commercial information?
  • We are not going to go into detail about the NYISO Market Operation
  • NY Market Operation Course (NYMOC)
    • Covers the aspects of dealing with the Market Information System (MIS), participating in the several ancillary service markets
  • Go to www.nyiso.com for more information and schedule and registration
system operations
System Operations
  • What does the NYISO do?
    • Transmission system security (“Reliability Coordinator”)
    • Control Area Operator (“balancing authority”)
    • Outage Scheduling
    • Planning (resource, transmission, load forecasting)
  • Generator interaction with NYISO Control Area Operation
slide10

Quebec

Ontario (IESO)

ISO-NE

PJM

Overview of Control Area Operation

New York Control Area

reliability coordinator s responsibility
Reliability Coordinator’s Responsibility

If we don’t coordinate the collective security of the interconnected power system, the whole business can collapse like a house of cards. It has happened, and it’s not pretty:

The Northeast Blackout – Nov. 9th 1965

(the ‘grand-daddy’ of them all until…)

other notable events
Other Notable Events
  • July 1977 - New York City
  • July 1989 - Province of Quebec
  • January 1994 – WSCC
  • December 1994 – WSCC
  • July, August 1996 – Pacific NW (3 times)
  • January 1998 – Montreal and Northern NY
  • December 1998 – San Francisco
  • And who can forget…

August 14, 2003 – Midwest and Northeast

santayana
…Santayana

…those who refuse to learn from history are doomed to repeat it.

nyiso s rc responsibilities
NYISO’s RC Responsibilities
  • Interaction with Generation Owners
  • Interaction with Transmission Owners
  • Transmission interfaces (“flowgates”)
    • Likely transmission constraints in NYCA
    • Ties with neighboring systems
interaction with generators
Interaction with Generators
  • Real-time security dispatch adjusts output of generators to respect system security constraints
  • AGC adjusts generation to maintain area control error (ACE)
  • Reserve pick-up adjusts generation following a contingency loss of resource
load following rts
Load Following - RTS
  • RTS dispatches generators with basepoints to meet the 5 minute projected load
    • Primary control of generation based on availability, cost, capability limits, and response rates
    • Maintain reserve requirements
    • Adjusts generation to solve security constraints
    • Calculates real time prices
generation dispatch to follow the load
Generation Dispatch to Follow the Load
  • Day-ahead (SCUC) – commits generation to load forecast and sufficient additional generation to meet reliability requirements (including reserve)
  • Hour-ahead – in-day in advance of real time
    • Off dispatch units are scheduled by the hour
    • Transactions are scheduled by the hour
    • Additional generation needed resulting from forced outages, external schedule changes or forecast error
  • 5-minute – load following with on-dispatch units receiving 5-min. base points
  • Six second – AGC with on-control units receiving 6-sec. base points respond to Area Control Error
slide19

SINGLE LARGEST SOURCE CONTINGENCY 1,200 MW

10 MIN SYNC

30 MIN

600 MW min

+

600 MW

10 MIN NON-SYNC

What is needed in addition

to 10 min SYNC (600) to total

1200 MW

10 MINUTE

TOTAL

1,200 MW

RESERVE REQUIREMENT: 1,800MW

nyiso operating reserve
NYISO Operating Reserve
  • Consistent with NPCC Criteria and NYSRC Reliability rules, the NYCA must maintain sufficient operating reserve to withstand any loss of generation in the CA within design criteria
  • NYCA Operating Reserve Requirement is 1 ½ times the largest contingency
    • the largest source contingency is typically 1200 MW
    • Operating Reserve is maintained in three catagories
      • Ten minute Synchronous Reserve
      • Total ten minute reserve
      • Total 30 minute reserve
reserve requirements
Reserve Requirements
  • NYISO instituted – TO communicated
    • Reserve Pick-up
      • Payment based on following NYISO basepoints
      • Energy dispatch based on economic selection, not necessarily units carrying reserve
      • Performance penalties suspended
    • “Max Gen” Pick-up
      • Generation expected to produce at maximum capability – reimbursed for energy produced – no base points
      • Performance penalties suspended.
    • Selective Max Gen Pick-up
      • Instituted on a zonal basis
interaction with transmission owners
Interaction with Transmission Owners
  • Real-time security monitors loading of critical transmission facilities and paths
  • NYISO coordinates facility switching for scheduled outages
  • Coordinate response to emergency outages and/or contingency loss of facilities
  • Coordinate EHV voltage profiles
security constraints
Security Constraints
  • Frequency
  • Voltage
  • Equipment Ratings
  • System Constraints
frequency
Frequency
  • Frequency is an indicator of the “health” of the interconnection
  • Sudden changes in frequency are signals of “things happening” somewhere
  • Slow changes/small deviations in frequency generally indicate load/generation “trends”
  • “Frequency is like the weather – everybody talks about it…”
security constraints25
Security Constraints
  • Frequency
  • Voltage
  • Equipment Ratings
  • System Constraints
voltage control
Voltage Control
  • NYISO coordinates the voltage profile on the EHV transmission system
    • NYISO requests for reactive support relayed by TO to generators
    • Report AVR outages to the NYISO
    • NYISO directs switching of EHV connected shunt capacitors and reactors
  • “Out of normal” operation of transmission regulation devices (SVCs, etc.)
security constraints27
Security Constraints
  • Frequency
  • Voltage
  • Equipment Ratings
  • System Constraints
ratings of facilities
Ratings of Facilities
  • Transmission equipment ratings
    • Tie-line Rating Guide (NYSRC)
      • Line conductor (size, configuration)
      • Transformer ratings
  • Load & Interrupting Current ratings
      • Breaker continuous (load) and interrupting (fault)
      • CT, wavetrap, instrumentation ratings
      • Bus conductor ampacity
  • Generator capability and response rates
  • Voltage ratings/limits - high and low
ratings of transmission facilities
Ratings of Transmission Facilities
  • Transmission equipment ratings
  • Tie-line Rating Guide (NYSRC)
    • Transmission line conductor
    • Terminal equipment and bus section
  • Ratings of jointly owned facilities
  • Rating authority – real-time updates
  • Transformers
    • Self-cooled, forced cooled
    • Tap-changing capability
generator equipment ratings
Generator Equipment Ratings
  • Generators required to perform periodic testing to demonstrate capability
  • DMNC (seasonal) for real power for participation in the energy and ICAP
  • Reactive capability testing (annual) for participation in the VSS Ancillary Service
voltage ratings limits
Voltage Ratings/Limits
  • NYISO Controlled/Secured Stations
    • T&D or EO Manual, App. A-3 lists stations that NYISO monitors and secures
  • Owner sets the post-contingency high/low voltage limits based on equipment ratings
  • NYISO establishes pre-contingency high/low voltage limits to secure
    • Prevent violation of post-contingency limit
    • Pre-contingency limits determined by through system studies and approved
security constraints32
Security Constraints
  • Frequency
  • Voltage
  • Equipment Ratings
  • System Constraints
transmission system constraints
Transmission System Constraints
  • Thermal ratings
  • Transient Stability Limits
  • Station Voltage limits
  • Voltage Constrained Transfers
  • Locational Reserve requirements
  • Local Reliability constraints
transmission interfaces
Transmission Interfaces
  • Historically in NYCA we have used transmission interfaces to monitor and secure the system
    • 6 internal interfaces
      • Several have transient or voltage stability limits
      • All are evaluated on a forecast seasonal basis
    • 4 external interfaces (neighboring CAs)
      • Monitor inter-Area schedules/transactions
      • All are evaluated on a forecast seasonal basis
slide35

New York State

Transmission System

(230 kV and above)

Chateauguay

Willis

Moses

Massena

Plattsburgh

Adirondack

Oswego Complex

Somerset

Rotterdam

Niagara

Sta. 80

Clay

Marcy

New Scotland

Edic

Pannell

Porter

Alps

Huntley

Stolle Rd.

Lafayette

Gilboa

Meyer

Leeds

Pleasant Valley

Dunkirk

Watercure

Fraser

Hillside

Oakdale

Coopers Corners

Roseton

E. Fishkill

Rock Tavern

Buchanan

Ramapo

Legend:

Millwood

765 kV

Sprainbrook Dunwoodie

Homer City

500 kV

Shore Rd.

345 kV

Farragut

E. Garden City

W49St/Rainey

Goethals

230 kV

Moses-South

Central East

Dysinger East

West Central

Total East

UPNY-ConEd

NYC Cable

Total East

nyiso operating interfaces
NYISO Operating Interfaces
  • Cross-State Interfaces
      • Dysinger-East
      • West-Central
      • Moses-South
      • Central East
      • Total East
      • UPNY-ConEd
      • Sprain Brook/Dunwoodie-South (NYC Cable)
  • Inter-Area Interfaces
      • NYISO-IMO
      • NYISO-ISO-NE
      • NYISO-PJM
      • NYISO-HQTE
transmission system constraints37
Transmission System Constraints
  • Station voltage limits
    • Actions to prevent violation of pre-contingency voltage limits may include curtailing power transfers in the vicinity of the constraint
  • Other constraints
    • Maintaining operating reserve requirement
      • Locational Reserve requirements
    • Local Reliability constraints
      • Local reliability rules
solving transmission constraints
Solving Transmission Constraints
  • NYISO Real-time dispatch will adjust generation to solve security constraints
    • Can solve thermal rating (projected post-contingency overload) constraint for individual facilities
    • Can solve interface constraint for
      • Transient Stability Limits
      • Voltage Stability (Collapse) Limits
summary
Summary
  • The foundation for maintaining Reliability comes from the adequacy and security of:
    • Frequency, Voltage, Reserve, Regulation, while respecting equipment and interface limits.
  • The NYISO uses EMS applications to commit, schedule and dispatch generation, balance load to secure the system:
    • Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC)
    • Balancing Market Evaluation (BME)
    • Security Constrained Dispatch (SCD) and Automatic Generation Control (BME)
yogi berra
Yogi Berra

“Why buy good luggage? You only use it when you travel.”

…or

“When you come to a fork in the road, take it.”