Self-Awareness of Thought
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Self-Awareness of Thought COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES. Self-Awareness of Thought--the Cognitive Self. Self-Concept a. what is it? differentiation b. how do we improve it c. what are goals for it d. how to encourage child to set reasonable goals. Components: .

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Self-Awareness of Thought


Self awareness of thought the cognitive self
Self-Awareness of Thought--the Cognitive Self


a. what is it? differentiation b. how do we improve it

c. what are goals for it

d. how to encourage child to set reasonable goals


Self-perception shows itself in different domains including:

  • scholastic competence,

  • social acceptance,

  • athletic competence,

  • physical appearance, and

  • behavioral conduct.

Background self talk
Background: Self-Talk

self-verbalization = private speech

  • w/ a self-regulatory function

  • directed at the self

    • to ourselves about ourselves

    • to others about ourselves

      Schunk (1986)

Negative self talk
Negative Self-Talk

Everyone engages in some negative self-talk

  • Healthy internal dialogue is characterized by a balance of 60% positive to 40% negative thought.

  • Depressed mood = the presence of negative and the absence of positive thoughts.

    • Missel & Sommer (1983)

      • Depressed clients

        • less positive and more negative self-verbalizations than nondepressed clients in imagined situations with both negative and positive outcomes.

Application to ebd and ld
Application to EBD and LD

  • Negative thought becomes self-fulfilling

    • encourages feelings of anger, anxiety or pessimism.

    • feelings color what we say to ourselves next - starting us on a downwards spiral.

    • “the value you place on your head is the price people are willing to pay”

      • example thinking "I'm ugly. Nobody likes me".

      • other students will avoid them because of their negative prediction.

Empirical background self talk
Empirical Background: Self-Talk

Cognitive-behavioral packages w/ self-talk more than b. mod. increase student's reported self-concept--measured by the Piers-Harris.

(Kendall & Braswell, 1982)

  • Muscle strength - Resisting a downward pull of the arm while making positive or negative self-statements Hulnick & Hulnick (1989)

Empirical background self talk1
Empirical Background: Self-Talk

  • 60% of intercollegiate wrestling coaches and 58% of national Olympic and Pan American coaches surveyed encourage positive self-talk to increase self-efficacy and improve performance.

  • 3rd most frequently used of 13 strategies ranking only after instruction, drill, and modeling of confidence by the coach. (Gould, Hodge, Peterson, & Giannini,1989)

Empirical background self talk2
Empirical Background: Self-Talk

  • Increase of positive produced greater pain tolerance (length of time college women would keep their hand immersed in ice water). Shumate & Worthington (1987)

  • Negative self-evaluative statements more than neutral statements:

    • produced greater arousal--characterized by higher heart and respiratory rates--similar to an anxiety state Schuele & Wiesenfeld ( 1983)

Empirical background self talk3
Empirical Background: Self-Talk

  • Meta-analysis 22 studies with a variety of strategies including self-talk appeared to result in lasting, socially significant changes in behavior. Effect size .74.

    • Improved:

      • behavior, reduced impulsivity, and attention

      • anger control

      • effectiveness of behavior management and social skills training

    • Reduced

      • emotional distress, anxiety, depression, & suicide Grossman & Hughes (1992)


  • Interview - self-report: “Think Aloud Techniques” "Say aloud everything that goes through your head, anything you feel and think regardless of how unimportant it may seem to you."

  • Video Reconstruction Method - Videotape a person from the side so they cannot read their own lips when viewing. Play it back without sound. Ask the person to recall and verbalize what they thought, felt and said to themselves.


  • Make your own incomplete sentences to focus attention to strengths and interests:


    • 1. My friends like me because .....

    • 2. What is your best sport?

    • 3. What physical feature are you most proud of?

    • 4. In what school subject do you feel most confident?

    • 5. My grandma likes be because I'm ........

    • 6. I'm really good at .....

    • Younger students or those with very low self-esteem may need more guidance.


  • Pictures - Fill in the missing bubbles.

    • "What is this person saying to themself?" Can be written or verbal. "Make up a story about this person”




Components of positive self talk training
Components of Positive Self-Talk Training

1. Point out negative self-talk and then positive statements that will become part of the student's coping skills.

  • Positive thoughts can push out negative ones.

  • Fill the mind with positive builders like, "I am capable, I am a leader, I am fit"

    (Weaver & Cotrell, 1985).

Components of positive self talk training1
Components of Positive Self-Talk Training

2. Specific statements improve specific tasks; general statement improve performance on general tasks (Grossman Hughes, 1992).

3. More effective w/ children over 13.

4. Beneficial for typically deficient performers (e.g.., mentally retarded, learning disabled, impulsive) (Shunk, 1986).

Application self concept rx
Application Self-Concept Rx

  • Joe will formulate a list of at least 16 positive self-statements (2 each) representing his physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and familial self. .

  • Joe will identify 5 of his personal strengths and qualities and share these through art work.

  • Joe will identify one personal achievement per day for 5 consecutive days.

  • Joe will compile a list of 100 of his life accomplishments.

  • Joe will develop a pride folder of his academic successes adding 3 items each week for 6 weeks.

  • When beginning a new task, Joe will use positive self-talk on three occasions.

Positive self talk training
Positive Self-Talk Training

  • Affiliation

    • + Most people like me.

    • - There's never anyone to play with. I'm always left out.

  • Mission

    • + Yesterday I got 15 spelling words right and tomorrow I'm going to go for 17.

    • - I don't have any control over my life so why should I bother.

Examples of positive self talk training
Examples of Positive Self-Talk Training

  • A. Self-instruction training (fading from overt to covert)

  • Meichenbaum and Goodman (1971)

    • 1. Model-experimenter performed task talking aloud while subject watched

    • 2. Student performed task

      • while E instructed aloud

      • while instructing himself aloud

      • whispering to himself

      • without lip movement (silent speech)

Sum positive self talk improves
Sum: Positive Self-Talk improves:

  • behavior & response to skill training

  • pain resistance

  • motor strength: sports performance

  • affect

  • self-concept

  • Decreased emotional distress, suicide

Problem solving cognitive training
PROBLEM SOLVING Cognitive Training

Rules of Engagement

  • No criticism allowed for ideas

  • Move beyond ideas already offered

  • Emphasis on:

    • skills, such as active listening, effective communicating, and perspective taking

Problem solving stages
Problem Solving Stages

(1) Problem Recognition:

  • (a) recognize a challenge or dilemma exists

  • (b) that it’s an opportunity for growth and not a threat

  • (c) that it is solvable

Application example
Application Example

  • Problem Recognition:

    • Albert is the victim of a bully.

      • The bully corners him in the bathroom, destroying his school materials and often making him late for class.

      • Sometimes the bully makes fun of Albert in front of other kids.

    • Albert’s goal is not to be embarrassed or harrassed anymore.

Problem solving
Problem Solving

(2) Solution Generation = Brainstorming:

  • identifying a number of different possible alternative solutions

  • without prematurely dismissing any option

Application example1
Application Example

  • Solution Generation:

    • Albert brainstorms the following solutions:

      • (1) Makes sure he is not in the same place as the bully unless there is an adult around,

      • (2) Laughs or ignores the bully’s behavior,

      • (3) Moves to a new school,

      • (4) Talks to the bully directly about the behavior,

      • (5) Fights back

Problem solving1
Problem Solving

(3) Decision Making = Selecting a Plan to Enact

  • using information generated at the preceding stages

  • to make a decision about which alternative(s) to try using these criteria:

    • (a) problem resolution,

    • (b) emotional well-being,

    • (c) amount of time and effort required, and

    • (d) overall personal-social well being

Application example2
Application Example

  • Decision Making: Albert:

    • (1) makes sure he’s not in the same place as bully

      • [it is possible to take a restroom break at a different time than bully; the bus stop is another story]

    • (2) laughing or ignoring bully may get him in worse trouble

    • (3) moving to a new school is not in his control

    • (4) could try talking to bully directly; hey, maybe a mediator could help!

    • (5) fighting back is bound to make matters worse for him, while it might earn respect of bully

  • Albert decides to try an adult mediator first.

Components of problem solving
Components of Problem Solving

(4) Reviewing the Outcome = see if the desired outcome was achieved or if another alternative should be enacted

Repetition of the process until individual learns to apply entire process independently

Application example3
Application Example

  • Reviewing the Outcome:

    • Albert, the bully and adult mediator have agree to meet in one week to see how things have gone; or

    • Albert, alone, meets with the adult to evaluate the solution. At this point new issues may develop such as Albert’s true desire to be the bully’s friend.

Problem solving setting conflict
Problem Solving Setting = CONFLICT




A word about conflict

  • A “problem” is defined as a goal and a relationship

    • 1. about reaching one’s goals

    • 2. about maintaining an appropriate relationship with the other person

  • Degree of importance to each determines strategies used

  • THE KEY = Individual’s ability to diagnose importance of goals and relationships

  • WHEN GOAL AND RELATIONSHIP EQUALLY IMPORTANT: negotiation ensures both parties fully achieve goals and tensions resolved


  • GOAL NOT IMPORTANT, BUT RELATIONSHIP REALLY IS: smoothing; one or both give up goal

Steps of negotiation teaching students to be peacemakers program
STEPS OF NEGOTIATION both give up both goal and avoid relationship *Teaching Students to Be Peacemakers Program

1. State what you want

2. State how you feel

3. State the reasons underlying your wants and feelings

4. State your understanding of the other’s want, feelings and reasons

5. State 3 potential agreements that will maximize joint gain, and which one you would agree to

6. Formalize the agreement process

Problem solving and ellis s a b c model of maladaptive arousal
Problem-Solving both give up both goal and avoid relationship and Ellis’s A-B-C Model of Maladaptive Arousal

  • Arefers to a real life event or antecedent

  • B refers to the thoughts that might ensue

  • Crefers to the emotional/behavioral consequences

  • Individuals are likely to attribute C to A, instead of true cause B (perceptions of event)

Distortions of thought

Distortions of Thought both give up both goal and avoid relationship

Delusional and Jumping To Conclusions (JTC)--grandiosity

Bias of perception based on experience (failure, rejection, hostility)

Examples of irrational ideas ellis ret
Examples of Irrational Ideas both give up both goal and avoid relationship (Ellis, RET)

  • That it’s necessary for the individual to be loved or approved of by every other person

  • That one should be thoroughly competent, adequate, and achieving in all possible respects

  • That certain people are bad, wicked, or villainous and should be severely blamed and punished for this

Examples irrational ideas
Examples: Irrational Ideas both give up both goal and avoid relationship

4. That it’s awful and catastrophic when things are not the way one wants them to be

5. That human unhappiness is externally caused and people have little or no ability to control their sorrows and disturbance

6. That if something is or may be dangerous or fearsome, one should be concerned and dwell on the possibility of its occurrence

Examples irrational ideas1
Examples: Irrational Ideas both give up both goal and avoid relationship

7. That it is easier to avoid than face certain life difficulties and self-responsibilities

8. That one should be dependent on others and need someone stronger on whom to rely

9. That one’s past history is an all-important determiner of one’s present behavior

10. That there is invariably a right, precise, and perfect solution to problems

Rational emotive therapy
Rational Emotive Therapy both give up both goal and avoid relationship

Overall Treatment involves:

  • (1) Identify person’s past and present illogical thinking and self-defeating remarks, OR IRRATIONAL IDEA

  • (2) Show how these irrational ideas cause and maintain the disturbance,

  • (3) Identify logical links in internalized sentences, and

  • (4) Teach how to rethink and reverbalize these internalized thoughts

Application ret
Application: RET both give up both goal and avoid relationship


(1) the Problem

(My mom and I don’t get along.)

(2) the Antecedent

(My mom and I fight about my schoolwork.)

(3) the Consequence (negative thought- a feeling)

(I get angry. I feel like I hate her!)

(4) the Connected Belief (“I don’t do well at school anyhow, so what does it matter if I do my homework or not? If I can’t be perfect, why bother?)

Application steps
Application: Steps both give up both goal and avoid relationship

(5) Dispute the Negative Thought by Analyzing its Validity Based on Logic or Evidence

(Am I really a failure at all schoolwork, or just some of it? Do I think schoolwork should be easy the first time around? Who says I have to be perfect at everything? Is everyone perfect?)

(6) Rebuild/Restructure Thought Processes by Identifying Alternative, Incompatible, But Realistic Thoughts

(Maybe I’ll never be perfect at this particular subject, but I can improve with a little work.)