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Rootstocks for Fruit Trees. General comments. www.Hortilover.com. Rootstocks for Fruit Trees. General characteristics of Rootstocks Specific Crops Pome fruits Stone fruits Grapes and other small fruits Nut crops. Reading. Ryugo. Fruit Culture: Its Science and Art

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rootstocks for fruit trees

Rootstocks for Fruit Trees

General comments

www.Hortilover.com

Hort 319 - Texas A&M University

rootstocks for fruit trees2
Rootstocks for Fruit Trees
  • General characteristics of Rootstocks
  • Specific Crops
    • Pome fruits
    • Stone fruits
    • Grapes and other small fruits
    • Nut crops

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

reading
Reading
  • Ryugo. Fruit Culture: Its Science and Art
    • Chapter 4. Physiology and function of roots, p. 61-68.
    • Chapter 10. Nursery practices and management, p. 223-244.

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

compound genetic system
Compound Genetic System
  • Stion = Scion + Rootstock

Scion

Stion

Rootstock

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

root system characteristics
Root System Characteristics
  • Dynamic plant organ which serves for
    • Anchorage
    • Nutrient and water uptake and translocation
    • Conversion, synthesis, and storage
  • Important Horticultural Traits
    • Ease of propagation
    • Tolerance to edaphic stresses
      • Soil types
      • Pathogens and pests
    • Growth control and precocity
    • Maximize fruit yield and quality
  • Compound Genetic System
    • Rootstock + Scion = Stion combination

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

anchorage
Species differences

More lateral

Peach, plum, mazzard

Transplant readily

More vertical

Almond, apricot, mahaleb

Peach

Anchorage

Apricot

Almond

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

anchorage7
Seedling vs. Cutting

Cutting more lateral growth

Seedling more vertical growth

Stockton Morello cutting

Anchorage

Mahaleb seedling

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

anchorage planting density
Anchorage: Planting Density

High density planting

Low density planting

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

anchorage environmental effects
Anchorage: Environmental Effects

Sandy layer

Hardpan

High water table

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

anchorage root distribution and soil texture
Anchorage:Root Distribution and Soil Texture

Well Drained Sandy Loam

Poorly Drained Loam

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

nutrient and water uptake
Dependent on root distribution

Most in top 18-24”

Spread more in sand vs. clay

Active process

Tolerance to calcareous soil

Tolerance to salinity

Nutrient and Water Uptake

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

slide12
Convert

Nitrates to amino acids

Store

Carbohydrates and nutrients over winter

Important for flowering and early spring growth

Synthesize

Cytokinins

Apple rootstocks

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

ease of propagation
Seed

Apple, pear, peach, nuts, persimmon

Clonal - vegetative

Apple, pear, grape, plum

No rootstock

Grape, fig, berries, filberts

Ease of Propagation

Peach seed

Peach seedlings budded

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

ease of propagation14
Uniform rapid growth

Virus status

Graft compatibility

Ease of Propagation

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

tolerance to stress
Edaphic

Texture

Waterlogging

Drought

Soil pH

Tolerance to Stress

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

tolerance to stress16
Pathogens

Nematodes

Armillaria

Fire blight

Phytophthora

Cotton root rot

Tolerance to Stress

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

tolerance to stress17
Pests

Phylloxera

Wooly Apple Aphid

Voles

Tolerance to Stress

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

growth control and precocity
Induce little growth

Dwarfing rootstocks

Induce earlier fruiting

3 years vs. 7 years

Growth Control and Precocity

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

maximize yield and quality
Yield

50% increase in yield efficiency

Apple rootstocks

M9 vs. Seedling

Quality

Size

Increased soluble solids

Physiological disorders in pear

Black end of fruit

Cork spot

Maximize yield and quality

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

ideal rootstock
Freestanding

Precocious

Dwarfing

Graft compatible

Disease & Insect resistant

Widely adaptable

High Yielding

High quality

Ideal Rootstock

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production