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Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods Karen Huffman, Palomar College. Lecture Overview. Introducing Psychology Origins of Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods

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Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 1: Introduction

and Research Methods

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Lecture Overview

  • Introducing Psychology

  • Origins of Psychology

  • The Science of Psychology

  • Research Methods

  • Tools for Student Success

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Introducing Psychology

  • What is psychology?

    The scientific studyof behavior and mental processes.

  • Psychology focuses on critical thinkingand isscientific.

  • Pseudopsychologies(e.g., psychics, mediums)are nonscientific.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: Why Study Psychology?

  • Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs and misconceptions about behavior and mental processes. For example, can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slide are true or false?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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True or False?

  • In general, we only use about 10% of our brain.

  • Most brain activity stops during sleep.

  • Police often use psychics to help solve crimes.

  • Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Answers to These (and Other Common Beliefs) are Found Throughout Psychology in Action (8e)

  • In general, we only use about 10% of our brain.

    • False—(See Chapter 2)

  • Most brain activity stops during sleep.

    • False—(See Chapter 5)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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More Answers Throughout

  • Police often use psychics to help solve crimes.

    • False—(See Chapter 1)

  • Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships.

    • True—(See Chapter 16)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Introducing Psychology: Throughout Psychology’s Four Goals

  • Description: tells “what” occurred

  • Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred

  • Prediction: identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur

  • Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Biopsychology/ Neuroscience Throughout

Clinical and Counseling Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Educational and School Psychology

Experimental Psychology

Introducing Psychology: Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Forensic Psychology Throughout

Gender/Cultural Psychology

Health Psychology

Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Social Psychology

Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Careers in Psychology: Percentage of Psychology Degrees by Specialty

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Introducing Psychology: Ethnicities of Psychology Degrees by SpecialtyDoctorate Recipients in Psychology

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Origins of Psychology Psychology Degrees by Specialty

  • Wilhelm Wundt:“father of psychology”

  • Structuralism: sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind through introspection

    (Wundt and Titchenerkey leaders)

  • Functionalism: studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment (James key leader)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective: Psychology Degrees by Specialtyunconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts (Freud was the founder)

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Behavior Perspective: Psychology Degrees by Specialtyobjective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner were key figures)

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Origins of Psychology (Continued) Psychology Degrees by Specialty

  • Humanist Perspective: free will, self-actualization, and a positive, growth-seeking human nature (Rogers and Maslow were key figures)

+

=

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Cognitive Perspective: Psychology Degrees by Specialtythought, perception, and information processing

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Origins of Psychology (Continued) Psychology Degrees by Specialty

  • Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective: genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Origins of Psychology (Continued) Psychology Degrees by Specialty

  • Evolutionary Perspective: natural selection, adaptation, and evolution

  • Sociocultural Perspective: social interaction and cultural determinants

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Origins of Psychology: One Unifying Theme of Modern Psychology

  • Biopsychosocial model: combines all seven major perspectives

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: Psychology Critical Thinking

  • Why do psychologists and other scientists need multiple perspectives? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Multiple perspectives allow psychologists to better understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

Do See Both a Vase and Two Faces?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

  • Basic Research: conducted to advance scientific knowledge

  • Applied Research: designed to solve practical problems

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes. Check & Review

  • Is this an example of basic or applied research?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.The Scientific Method

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

  • Human research participants need:

    • Informed consent

    • Voluntary participation

    • Restricted use of deception

    • Debriefing

    • Confidentiality

    • Alternative activities

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Ethical Guidelines (Continued)

  • Advocates believe nonhuman research offers significant scientific benefits. Opponents question these benefits and suggest nonhuman animals cannot giveinformed consent.

  • Psychologists must maintain high standards for both human and nonhuman animal research.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes. Check & Review

  • What are the four major goals of psychology?

  • The _____ perspective focuses onnatural selection, adaptation, and evolution.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Research Methods

  • Four key research methods:

    • Experimental

    • Descriptive

    • Correlational

    • Biological

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Four Key Research Methods (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Four Major understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Research Methods (Continued)

1. Experimental Research: carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause and effect

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Research Methods—Experiment (Continued)

  • Key features of an experiment:

    • Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured)

    • Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Research Methods—Experiment (Continued)

  • Does TV increase aggression? Only an experiment can determinecause and effect.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Research Methods— understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Experiment (Continued)

  • Potential researcher problems:

    • Experimenter bias (researcher influences the research results in the expected direction)

    • Ethnocentrism (believing one's culture is typical of all cultures)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Research Methods—Experiment (Continued)

  • Potential participant problems:

    • Sample bias (research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population)

    • Participant bias (research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.Research Methods—Experiment (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Research Methods understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.—Descriptive Research

  • 2. Descriptive Research: observes and records behavior without producing causal explanations

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Research Methods understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.—Descriptive Research

Three types of descriptive research:

  • Naturalistic Observation (observation and recording of behavior in natural state or habitat)

  • Survey (assessment of a sample or population)

  • Case Study (in-depth study of a single participant)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes. Why Study Psychology?

  • What is the advantage of studying psychological research methods like naturalistic observation? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Psychology Explains the Underlying Humor of This Cartoon understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Research Methods understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.—Correlational Research

3. Correlational Research: scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationshipsbetween them

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Positive Correlation: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes. two variables move (or vary) in the samedirection—either up or down

The Science of Psychology: Research Methods—Correlational Research

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Negative Correlation: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes. two variables move (or vary) in the oppositedirection—either up or down

The Science of Psychology: Research Methods—Correlational Research

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Zero Correlation: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase,decrease, or stay the same)

The Science of Psychology: Research Methods—Correlational Research

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Research Methods understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.—Correlational Research

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Research Methods understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.—Correlational Research

  • Can you see why correlation can never show cause and effect?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Science of Psychology: Research Methods understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.—Biological Research

4. Biological Research: scientific study of the brain and other parts of the nervous system

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes. Check & Review

  • Why is an experiment the only way we can determine cause and effect?

  • What is the difference between a positive correlation and a negative correlation?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Tools for Student Success understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Tools for Student Success (Continued) understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

  • Four major tools:

    • Active Reading (SQ4R)

    • Time Management (setting up a realistic study, social, and work schedule)

    • Grade Improvement (note taking, study habits, test taking tips)

    • Additional Resources (instructors, classmates, study groups, etc.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Tools for Student Success: The Importance of Time Management understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Can You Identify the Real U.S. Penny? understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: understand and research complex behavior and mental processes. Critical Thinking

  • Can you see how the lack of active reading or studying helps explain why most people cannot easily identify the actual U.S. penny despite having seen it thousands of times?

  • Which of the four major “Tools for Student Success” do you plan to work on to improve your academic performance?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Psychology in Action (8e) understand and research complex behavior and mental processes.byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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