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Inar 328 History of Furniture and Interior Decoration by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Netice Yıldız. Etruscan Furniture.
Inar 328 History of Furniture and Interior Decorationby Assoc. Prof. Dr. Netice Yıldız Etruscan Furniture N.YILDIZ
By about 600 BC the Etruscans controlled much of central northern Italy. They lived in walled cities and grew wealthy form the export of metal goods. Between 400 BC and 200 CB, the Etruscan cities were conquered by the Romans, who adopted many aspects of Etruscan culture. Although little material culture remained from the Etruscans, their designs are important in the evolution of the Roman architecture and art. N.YILDIZ
Sarchopagus of Larthia Seianti; Etruscan, from Chiusi, first half of the second century BC. Florence, Archaeological Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2004 N.YILDIZ
Etruscan Furniture • Etruscan furniture oves its origin to Greek colonies in Italy. • We know about their houses through some drawings and writings of Vitrivius, Roman architecture historian. • However, until the increase of Corinthian style influences, Etruscan furniture until the 7th century BC., owed its developments to the influences coming from the Middle East rather than Greek. • Potteries and wall paintings from Etruscan tombs often show details of everyday life, some of which depicts furnitures. N.YILDIZ
Etruscan Craftsmen • Etruscan furniture found in the tombs carved out of the rocks. • They were experts in wood, stone and textiles. • Fresk paintings suggests that, like the Greeks, they existed in an atmosphere of relative comfort and luxury. • Their most original contribution to furniture lay in their use of bronze. N.YILDIZ
Etruscan Bronze protable cauldron cart • A number of bronze chests in circular forms are remarkable. They stand on paw feet and engraved with figures. • A barrel-shaped type of chair was made of sheet bronze with the back and arms forming a continuous curve that joined a drum-like circular base. • A funerary statue dating from the fifth century BC now in Florence, shows an elaborate armchair, with carved sphinx supports. • Large bronze candlestick and lamp stands, dating from the seventh to the third century BC have tripod bases and shafts with animal figures climbing up them. • A couldron stand of the third century, engineered with strips of bronze arranged geometrically is another example from the Etrusks. N.YILDIZ
Decorated Bronze Handles, Etruscan.These handles depict aspects of Etruscan religion that were adopted by the Romans. (right) Portaland Vase. (below) N.YILDIZ
Little is known about them. A vase painting depicting a woman sitting on a klismos (a chair with a shaped slab at the back and curved legs. Etruscan Furniture: Couches N.YILDIZ
Etruscan Buildings • Houses: • Megaron style • Primary materials: Mud-brick & wood. • Temples: • Colonnaded front portico with gabled pediment. • Tuscan style Column: A simplified Doric column, with its base of the Ionic order N.YILDIZ
Greek and Etruscan ornament styles N.YILDIZ
Etruscan Style • The 18th cent. AD. There was a widespread archaeological activity associated with Neoclassicism(e.g. HErculaneum and Pommpeii). Many collectors tried to obtain black and red vases and admired their elegance, shape, decorations. At the same time new potteries and procelains were illustrated in the Etruscan style by Fracesco Bartoli (1706-30), Compte de Caylus (1692-1765) and Bernard de Montfaucon (1665-1741). In particular de CAylus’s REcueild’antiquities egyptiénnes, étrusquesi romaines et gauloises (Collecitions of Egyptians, Etruscan, Greek, Roman and Gaulish Antiquities 1752067) had an enourmous influence on the development of Neoclassicim and on the evolution of Egyptian and Greek Revivals, as well as the creation of the Etruscan style of interior decoration. N.YILDIZ
Etruscan Style of 18th cent. • The 18th ceentury Etruscan style first emerged in France in yhe reign of Louis Seize and was used by Robert Adam for the Etrruscan Room, ousterly Housei Middlesex (1775). By then, what was known as the style étrusque owed much to Pompeii and Herculaneum, with some Greek influece, the actual Etruscan influence was questionable. • Chracteristics of the Etruscan style: • Use of much red, black annd white • Griffins, harpies, lions, sphinxes, medalions, festoons, bell flowers, tripodsi urns, chimeras and very light, delicate details derived form Antique sources. N.YILDIZ
A jewel cabinet in yew, amaranth, g,lt bronze and mother of pearl made for Empress Josephine by Jacob-Desmalter, French 1809. In Gretesque and Etruscan style decoration. N.YILDIZ
A jewel cabinet in mahagony veneered on oak, and gilt bronze, made for the Comtesse de Prevence by J.H. Riesener and bought by King George IV of England after the French Revolution, French c. 1785. Etruscan style decorations. N.YILDIZ
The Platinum Room of the Casa del Labrador, Aranjuez designed by Percier and Fontaine and made in France, containing a chandelier also designed by Percier and Fontaine, and a chari Walls and ceilings are covered with grotesque ornament skillfully blended with Etruscan motifs, mainly in paint and cast metal; the use of mirror extends the spaces and adds Pompeiian ambuguities. The paintings are by Giredot. N.YILDIZ
A jewel cabinet in mahogany gilt bronze and glass, with Sevres porcelain mounts. French 1824-26. N.YILDIZ
Sources Used in This Lecture Presentation • Blackemore, Robbie (2005). History of Interior Design & Furniture, From Ancient Egypt to Nineteenth Century Europe, Line Drawings by Julie L. Rabun, 2nd ed. London: John & Wiley & sons. Inc. • Hawkes, Jacquetta (1976/1983). The Atlas of Early Man, (Assisted by David Trump), London • Housing and Settlement in Anatolia: A Historical Perspective,İstanbul, Habitat II, 1996, Turkey, History Foundation. • Huntley, Michael (2004). History of Furniture Ancient to 19th c., Sussex: Guild of Master Fracftsman Publications. • Lucie-Smith, Edward (2005). Furniture, A Concise History, London: Thames and Hudson. • Morley, John (1999). Furniture, the Western Tradition, History, Style Design, 1999, London, Thames and Hudson. • Karageorghis, V. (1968). Cyprus, (Archaeologia Mvndi), Geneva • Pile, John (2005). A History of Interior Design, London: Laurence King Publishing, 2nd. Ed. • Philip, Peter (1995). “Early Furniture” in: Payne, Christopher (ed.) (1995). Sotheby’s Concise Encyclopedia of Furniture, London: Conran Octopus. p. 13-22.a N.YILDIZ
Some Web Sites • Furniture Styles: http://www.furniturestyles.net/ • http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563034_8/Furniture.html • Encarta: “Furniture”: http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/furniture.htm • http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/domustablinum_upenn.jpg • http://www.furniturestyles.net/ancient/roman • http://www.furniturestyles.net/ancient/homes/roman.html • http://www.classicsunveiled.com/romel/html/intdecor.html • http://www.vroma.org.html • http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/house.html N.YILDIZ