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Outer Space Development Trends . . . . an outsiders’ perspective Copyright 2004 E.E. Weeks. What Outer Space Development Means. Outer space development means different things to different people, and this changes over time. It can mean:

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Outer space development trends l.jpg

Outer Space Development Trends . . .

an outsiders’ perspective

Copyright 2004 E.E. Weeks


What outer space development means l.jpg
What Outer Space Development Means

Outer space development means different things to

different people, and this changes over time. It can

mean:

  • space exploration, studying planets, moons and stars, and entering into outer space through either robotic or manned (human) missions

  • advancements in biological and other sciences and technology, and discoveries and spin off benefits

  • satellite telecommunications – cell phones, the Internet and cable television

  • remote sensing, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), visual imagery, mapping or meteorology satellites


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  • space transportation vehicles, spaceports, launch services and old versus new space vehicles

  • space tourism, adventure travel, joyrides, parabolic flights, suborbital flights, short stays in low earth or geostationary orbit in orbital hotels

  • space settlement, space colonization, long stays in artificial, closed-ecology human space habitats in free orbit powered by solar power

  • mining and extracting minerals from asteroids, The Moon and Mars such as gold, platinum, magnesium, calcium, iron and many others

  • The search, discovery and communication with extraterrestrial intelligence To


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SPACE EXPLORATION and old versus new space vehicles

  • Until recently, the U.S. and former Soviet Union were the only two space superpowers.

  • Today, many countries have activated their own programs of sending spacecraft and satellites into space, to Mars, and to the Moon.

  • China, Europe (e.g.. France, Germany, Italy, Russia, United Kingdom), India and Japan for example.


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Moon Missions and old versus new space vehicles

Mankind has gone to the Moon more times than people realize.


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  • While Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin were the first humans to land on the Moon on July 16, 1969 (Apollo 11), there were fifty-seven prior missions to the Moon. This included undertakings by both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. There were twenty-two subsequent missions to the Moon. Altogether, mankind has arranged and attempted eighty trips to the moon. Some were successful, others were unsuccessful. Some were manned, others were unmanned - rovers, orbiters and the like[1].

  • [1] For a complete list of the various missions to the Moon, including, orbiting, manned landings and unmanned spacecraft see http://www.planetary.org/learn/missions/moonmissions.html.


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MISSIONS TO MARS humans to land on the Moon on July 16, 1969 (Apollo 11), there were fifty-seven prior missions to the Moon. This included undertakings by both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. There were twenty-two subsequent missions to the Moon. Altogether, mankind has arranged and attempted eighty trips to the moon. Some were successful, others were unsuccessful. Some were manned, others were unmanned - rovers, orbiters and the like

  • On January 4 and January 25, 2004 twin robots Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars. Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, after an interplanetary cruise of almost half a year and 487 million km (303 million miles) touched down softly on red planet Mars, in the intended landing site region, Gusev Crater, 184.8d W, 14.8d S. Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity had a correction maneuver, the first after four months, on January 16, 2004, just little more than a week and 12.5 million km (7.8 million miles) before arriving at Mars. After an interplanetary cruise of more than 6 month, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity successfully touched down on January 25, 2004, 5:05 UT (January 24, 2004, 9:05 p.m. PST) at its intended landing site Meridiani Terra (2.07 S, 6.08 W).


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Spirit Photo of Mars taken humans to land on the Moon on July 16, 1969 (Apollo 11), there were fifty-seven prior missions to the Moon. This included undertakings by both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. There were twenty-two subsequent missions to the Moon. Altogether, mankind has arranged and attempted eighty trips to the moon. Some were successful, others were unsuccessful. Some were manned, others were unmanned - rovers, orbiters and the likeJanuary 8, 2004


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Opportunity Photo on Mars taken January 25, 2004 humans to land on the Moon on July 16, 1969 (Apollo 11), there were fifty-seven prior missions to the Moon. This included undertakings by both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. There were twenty-two subsequent missions to the Moon. Altogether, mankind has arranged and attempted eighty trips to the moon. Some were successful, others were unsuccessful. Some were manned, others were unmanned - rovers, orbiters and the like


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Cassini-Huygens' Trip to Saturn and Titan humans to land on the Moon on July 16, 1969 (Apollo 11), there were fifty-seven prior missions to the Moon. This included undertakings by both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. There were twenty-two subsequent missions to the Moon. Altogether, mankind has arranged and attempted eighty trips to the moon. Some were successful, others were unsuccessful. Some were manned, others were unmanned - rovers, orbiters and the like


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  • In July 2004 NASA’s Cassini-Huygens spacecraft arrived at Saturn and its Moon Titan and sent new information regarding the two celestial bodies. Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency[1].

  • [1] For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission, visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov and the Cassini imaging team home page, http://ciclops.org .


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China's Manned Space Program Saturn and its Moon Titan and sent new information regarding the two celestial bodies. Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency

THE SHENZHOU 5

China's first manned spacecraft,

is expected to blast into orbit

sometime this fall. The nine-

meter-long craft, which holds two

pairs of solar panels and four

main engines, is designed to carry up

to three astronauts. If the mission is

successful, China was the third nation (after

Russia and the U.S.) to send a manned vehicle

into space.

Scientific American, 10/13/03

In addition, China is “planning to establish a

base on the Moon [by 2010] to exploit its mineral

resources” for the stated purpose being “Our

long-term goal is to set up a base on the Moon

and mine its riches for the benefit of humanity.”

BBC News, May 20, 2002


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Europe’s First Moon Mission Saturn and its Moon Titan and sent new information regarding the two celestial bodies. Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency

The European Space Agency's SMART-1 spacecraft took off this Fall for a trip to the moon -- with an arrival date of December 2004.

  • The unmanned flight, Europe's first to the moon, was launched on an Ariane 5 rocket from a base in Kourou, French Guiana.


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Plans have been put into place for NASA to use nuclear propulsion, since it is believed that nuclear propulsion Nuclear propulsion is capable (in theory) of achieving much faster speeds than conventional rockets, and that they will use far less fuel. This could cut travel time to Mars[1]. [1] "Plans Put into Place for NASA to go Nuclear", BBC News World Edition, Online Science Editor (January 22, 2003) at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2684329.stm.

A New Space Race: Project Prometheus


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NASA's New Budget propulsion, since it is believed that nuclear propulsion Nuclear propulsion is capable (in theory) of achieving much faster speeds than conventional rockets, and that they will use far less fuel. This could cut travel time to Mars


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NASA's New Space Policy Budget Chart propulsion, since it is believed that nuclear propulsion Nuclear propulsion is capable (in theory) of achieving much faster speeds than conventional rockets, and that they will use far less fuel. This could cut travel time to Mars


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The Significance of SpaceShipOne propulsion, since it is believed that nuclear propulsion Nuclear propulsion is capable (in theory) of achieving much faster speeds than conventional rockets, and that they will use far less fuel. This could cut travel time to Mars

  • October 4, 2004 SpaceShipOne won the X Prize. Mike Melville piloted the spacecraft. Just a few months earlier, in April of 2004 the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation issued the world’s first license for a private sub-orbital manned rocket flight to Burt Rutan’s Scaled Composites, Mojave, California.


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  • The license issued is for a sequence of sub-orbital flights spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first private manned spaceflight[1]. Before this all trips into space were undertaken by the government. Paul Allen, the billionaire who co-founder of Microsoft, funded the SpaceShipOne project[2].

  • [1] See www.xprize.org.

  • [2]Business Wire (December 17, 2003).


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SPACE INDUSTRIES and COMMERCIALIZATION spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

In the early stages of space activities only a few states engaged in the use of outer space. Today, however, commercial space activities have grown dramatically in recent years. States, state institutions, international governmental organizations and private entities are actively engaged in the commercial use of outer space. Several space industries have gone through the process of commercialization:

Launch Services

Telecommunications Satellites

Remote Sensing Satellites

Direct Broadcasting Satellites

Space Transportation

Space Stations


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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first Benefits from Space

  • Spinoff is NASA's annual premiere publication featuring successfully commercialized NASA technology. For more than 40 years, the NASA Commercial Technology Program has facilitated the transfer of NASA technology to the private sectors. The resulting commercialization has contributed to the development of commercial products and services in the fields of health and medicine, industry, consumer goods, computer technology, and environment.

  • See http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/

  • spinoff.html


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Examples of Spinoff Benefits spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

  • Wastewater Purification Systems

  • Solar Energy Enlightenment

  • Cordless Products

  • Heart Rate Monitor

  • Portable Computer

  • The Internet

  • Cell Phones

  • Cable Television

  • Laser Technology

  • Computer Reader for the Blind

  • Smoke Detectors

  • Computer Bar Codes

  • Quartz Timing Crystals

  • Shock Absorbing Tennis Shoes

  • Medical Equipment

  • Pacemakers and Heart Pumps

  • Sunglasses and Radiation Blocking Lenses

  • Scratch Resistant Lenses

  • Advancements in firefighting protective gear

  • Weather Information

    AND MANY, MANY MORE


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ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

Sputnik was the very

first satellite; it was

launched by Russia in

October of 1957.

This was the beginning of

the space race for national

prestige and scientific achievement.

It was also the beginning of a new

age of communications.


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SATELLITES spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

Today There is a

multitude of satellites

for:

telecommunications, remote sensing, weather reporting & television broadcasting.


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SATELLITE INDUSTRY STATISTICS spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

  • According to "Space News Top 50: 2004" in the Space News Business Report of August 2, 2004, based on company questionnaires, annual reports and interviews with corporate officials and analysts, the top grossing space firms for 2003 include:

  • Boeing Co. (U.S.) at $9,358,000,000

  • Lockheed Martin Corp. (U.S.) at $8,700,000,000

  • EADS (Netherlands) at $3,013,000,000

  • Raytheon (U.S.) at $2,978,000,000

  • Northrop Grumman Corp. (U.S.) at $2,800,000,000

  • Science Applications International Corp. (U.S.) at $1,750,000,000

  • United Space Alliance (U.S.) at $1,684,000,000

  • Alcatel (France) at $1,506,000,000


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  • The DirecTV Group (U.S.) at $1,322,000,000 spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

  • ATK (U.S.) at $1,134,000,000

  • Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan) at $1,018,000,000

  • Honeywell, Inc. (U.S.) at $775,000,000

  • Arianespace SA (France) at $1,529,000,000

  • Alenia Spazio (Italy) at $637,000,000

  • L-3 Communications (U.S.) at $619,000,000

  • Orbital Sciences Corp. (U.S.) at $582,000,000


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  • Trimble Navigation Ltd. (U.S.) at $541,000,000 spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

  • Computer Sciences Corp. (U.S.) at $500,000,000

  • Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (U.S.) at $476,000,000

  • Loral Space & Communications (U.S.) at $474,000,000

  • General Dynamics (U.S.) at $474,000,000

  • Harris Corp. (U.S.) at $428,000,000

  • Snecma (France) at $421,000,000


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  • United Technologies Corp. (U.S.) at $415,000,000 spanning a one-year period. SpaceShipOne was one of several aircraft in the running for the X-Prize competition, When it reached an altitude above 62.14 miles (100 km) on September 29, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first

  • Eastman Kodak Co. (U.S.) at $383,000,000

  • ITT Industries, Inc. (U.S.) at $378,000,000

  • EchoStar Communications Corp. (U.S.) at $244,000,000

  • ViaSat, Inc. (U.S.) at $239,000,000

  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan) at $216,000,000

  • Aerojet (U.S.) at $213,000,000


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  • Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (Japan) at $190,000,000

  • Gilat Satellite Networks, Ltd. (Israel) at $190,000,000

  • MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates, Ltd. (Canada) at $190,000,000

  • Swales (U.S.) at $162,000,000

  • EMS Technologies (U.S.) at $126,000,000

  • MAN Technologies AG (Germany) at $121,000,000

  • OHB-System AG (Germany) at $121,000,000


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  • Jacobs Sverdrup (U.S.) at $118,000,000 $190,000,000

  • Goodrich Corp. (U.S.) at $114,000,000

  • Spacehab, Inc. (U.S.) at $95,000,000

  • ND SatCom AG (Germany) at $92,000,000

  • Saab Ericsson Space AB (Sweden) at $86,000,000

  • Contraves Space AG (Switzerland) at $83,000,000

  • Integral Systems, Inc. (U.S.) at $83,000,000


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  • Dutch Space B.V. (Netherlands) at $82,000,000 $190,000,000

  • Com Dev International, Ltd. (Canada) at $70,000,000

  • PSI Group (U.S.) at $70,000,000

  • Qineti (U.K.) at $44,000,000

  • Analytical Graphics (U.S.) at $38,000,000

  • Vega Group, plc (U.K.) at $36,000,000.

    For more information see http://dev.space.com/spacenews/top50_2004.html.



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US LEGISLATION environmental changes.

Over the last four decades, successive US Congresses and Presidential Administrations have sought ways to improve the prospects for successful commercialization in two major ways: transfer of technology developed in government laboratories to private industry; and creation of policies that promoted private financing of commercial opportunities in space.

Those efforts have been reflected in a series of legislative initiatives - most notably in satellite communications, remote sensing, and launch services.


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US LEGISLATION ENCOURAGING environmental changes.The Shift From Government to Private

  • Communications Satellite Act of 1962

  • Land Remote Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984

  • Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984

  • Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992

  • The Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984

  • The National Space Transportation Policy of 1994

  • The Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act of 2004


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Corporate Joint Ventures environmental changes.

Within the past ten years there has been an astonishing increase in the quantity and

quality of international cooperative activities. Many involve former political adversaries.

Aldrin (1998: 115) provides the following examples:

  • Boeing Sea launch venture a venture b/w Norwegian, American, Russian and Ukrainian firms

  • Lockheed Martin's joint venture with Russian firms RKK Khrunichev and RKK Energiia Globalstar's venture to jointly produce communications satellites with CAST in China;

  • TRW's cooperative arrangements with the governments of Korea and Taiwan;

  • Pratt and Whitney's marketing and co-development venture with Energomash;

  • The Starstem joint venture with the Progress Rocket and Space Complex and Areospatiale; and

  • The Celestri broadband communications system involving USA's Motorola and Frances' Matra.


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Evolution environmental changes. in Space Transportation

  • Ascender is a small sub-orbital spaceplane intended for use as a reusable sounding rocket and for carrying passengers on space experience flights.

  • Spacecab is an enlarged and refined Ascender air launched from a supersonic carrier aeroplane. It uses proven materials and existing engines. It is designed to launch small satellites, transport supplies and crew to space stations, and to pioneer orbital space tourism.

  • Spacebus is and enlarged and mature development of Spacecab, which should have a cost per person to orbit of around $10,000. This could be achieved in about fifteen years.


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SPACE TRANSPORTATION environmental changes.Launch Vehicles, Rockets and Spaceplanes

  • The X-15 was making regular sub-orbital flights thirty five years ago. It was the first, and still the only, fully reusable space-faring aeroplane.

The Technology exists for

advanced spaceships.

Spaceflight Revolution (2003),

a new book from David Ashford,

founder and director of Bristol

Spaceplanes Limited, discusses

this. Ashford was the recipient of

the ORBIT award in the "Visionaries"

category at the recent Space Tourism

Pioneer Awards


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"The X PRIZE Competition was created to attract the best and brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number of teams now registered to win the X PRIZE exceeds 20 from six nations: Argentina, Canada, Romania, Russia, UK, and the United States."

http://www.xprize.org/press/press_release.html

"I think the X PRIZE should be viewed as the beginning of one giant leap..."

Tom HanksActor,Director and Producer"The X PRIZE is a masterstroke, a brilliant idea. What the X PRIZE could very well..."

THE X PRIZE COMPETION10 Million Dollars


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INTRODUCTION brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total numberBold New Steps

  • In January, 2004 President Bush articulated a progressive space initiative for the Moon, Mars & Beyond, to establish a Moon base and regular manned missions to Mars.

  • Leaders from China and India had expressed similar ambitions for space in 2003.

  • Public perceptions about space have shifted to space for everyone instead of only for astronauts.

  • Space tourism companies have begun selling trips to space to the general public.

  • Political actors are lobbying for relaxation of FAA restrictions for public space travel.

  • New discourse is calling for full commercialization & free marketization of space.

  • Community discussion forums have been created to change public perceptions.

  • Think tanks between space enthusiasts and the entertainment industry are creating themes to get the general public excited about outer space development.

  • New & proposed domestic laws for new space industries are pending before the US Congress

  • Conference themes for the International Astronautical Federation, the International Academy of Astronautics, and the International Institute of Space Law are increasingly centering around commercialization themes

  • Space mining proposals are being seriously considered by key entrepreneurs


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SPACE INDUSTRIES brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total numberNOT YET COMMERICALIZED

Since the mid 1990s newer space industries have been discussed within the space development discourse (articles, books, movies, conversations etc.), and as the subject of numerous conferences, symposia and colloquia. These discussions and plans are articulated around the idea of commercializing the following industries:

Space Tourism

Space Mining

Space Settlement


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SPACE TOURISM brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

Q: What is Space Tourism?

A: The notion that space is a place for laypeople (non astronauts) to visit and enjoy some day.

Three Phases:

  • Suborbital day trips (joyrides)

  • Short stays in space-based facilities (low Earth orbit)

  • Longer stays in space – further into space or on other celestial bodies

    Space tourism is not a new concept, but has been around since the 1950s, or before. It was ignored until recently.

    Everything you ever wanted to know can be found at

    http://www.spacefuture.com/tourism/timeline.shtml


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SPACE ADVENTURES, LTD. brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

July 22, 2002

XCOR Aerospace and

Space Adventures, Ltd., announced a marketing agreement that enables Space Adventures to offer the first 600 flights to 62 miles (100 km) altitude aboard XCOR's Xerus sub-orbital vehicle, designed specifically for space tourist flights. The tickets cost $98,000 per. Space Adventures has already sold over $2 million dollars.

http://www.spaceadventures.com/press/072202.html


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SPACE TOURISM MARKET brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • According to a recent study commissioned by Space Adventures, the sub-orbital space tourist market could generate revenues of over $1 billion annually.

  • Space Adventures has over 100 sub-orbital reservations and is currently accepting bookings for sub-orbital flights at $98,000.


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SPACE STATIONS brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

The International Space Station

Source NASA 1999

  • Humans traveling to space will need somewhere to stay.

  • The International Space Station has established a knowledge base. Research and information from this project will have vast implications for the future space infrastructure.


Space hotels orbital hotels l.jpg
SPACE HOTELS, ORBITAL HOTELS brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • The hotels themselves will vary greatly - from being quite spartan in the early days, to huge luxury structures at a later date.

  • Luckily it's easy to design basic accommodation in orbit - because it was already done in 1973 with the "Skylab" space station.

  • Minimal living facilities require a cylindrical module with air-conditioning, some windows, and a kitchen and bathroom. But zero gravity allows you to build almost any shape and size, in almost any direction.

  • http://www.spacefuture.com/tourism/hotels.shtml

Shimizu Corporation's popular Space Hotel design


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NASA’S brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total numberSPACE LAUNCH INITIATIVE

  • NASA is revolutionizing its space transportation system to significantly increase safety and reliability, while reducing cost, through its Space Launch Initiative.

  • The design and development of a next-generation transport vehicle — an Orbital Space Plane — is one of the objectives of the Space Launch Initiative.

  • The Orbital Space Plane program will develop the entire space transportation system, including ground operations and all supporting technologies needed to conduct missions to and from the International Space Station.


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NASA’S brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total numberSPACE GRANT PROGRAM

  • Space Grant supports both graduate and undergraduate students through a network of 52 university-based consortia in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.

  • In 2001, the network involved 820 affiliates, including 530 academic institutions. Each consortium receives fellowship and scholarship funds* from NASA.


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SPACEPORTS brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • This plan was developed by the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) NASA Space Grant/EPSCoR program based on that program’s vision for aerospace education and research in Nevada.  Its purpose is to provide guidance for the NASA Space Grant/EPSCoR program, and an aerospace vision for the State of Nevada.

  • Nevada’s Aerospace Future, A 2025 Perspective

    In 2025 Nevada will have established itself as the Nation’s Western Gateway to Space through the development of one of 5 new national spaceports serving the needs of the international aerospace community.  The Nevada spaceport will be the gateway for aerospace customers in the Great Basin including, including Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and will also provide a high-altitude launch site for California.  The Nevada spaceport will provide service facilities for both sub-orbital aerospace planes and re-useable launch vehicles.  It will provide cargo, test and integration facilities for payloads for commercial, scientific and national defense missions as well as re-supply missions to the international space station, to lunar bases, and to Mars.

  • http://www.nevada.edu/epscor/SpacePlan.html


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SPACE MINING brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

Corporations, individuals, nations and institutions are planning to tap into the wealth of space by extracting natural resources from the Moon, asteroids and Mars.

For example, a chunk of iron-nickel meteorite could have a value of $80 trillion dollars. Gold concentration “is ten times richer than anything being mined on Earth, and the entire platinum group of minerals in there-metals-is 100 times more concentrated than anything being mined on Earth. We are talking about parts per million, parts per billion. . .”

Jim Benson quoted in Making Space Happen: Private Space Ventures and the Visionaries Behind Them (2002).


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US Laws Encouraging Commercialization brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • Communications Satellite Act of 1962

  • Land Remote Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984

  • Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984

  • The Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984

  • National Space Policy (1989)

  • Commercial Space Launch Policy (1990)

  • Commercial Space Policy Guidelines (1991)

  • National Launch Strategy (1991).

  • Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992

  • National Competitiveness Act of 1992


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  • Commercial Space Competitiveness Act of 1992 brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • The National Space Transportation Policy of 1994

  • The Hydrogen and Fusion Research Authorization Act of 1994

  • International Space Station Authorization Act of 1995

  • Space Commercialization Promotion Act of 1996

  • Spaceports Equity Bill

  • Act to Encourage the Development of a Commercial Space Industry in the United States, and for Other Purposes of 1998

  • Commercial Space Transportation Competitiveness Act of 2000


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  • Space Preservation Act 2001 brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • The Invest in Space Now Act of 2001

  • Space Tourism Promotion Act of 2001

  • The Commercial Space Act of 2003

  • Commercial Space Transportation Act of 2003

  • Zero Gravity, Zero Tax Bill 2003

  • Invest in Space Now 2003

  • Spaceport Equality Act 2003

  • Commercial Space Amendments Act 2004


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KEY ACTORS brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • Entrepreneurs

  • Interest Groups

  • International Organizations

  • Institutions

  • International Astronautical Federation

  • International Academy of Astronautics

  • International Institute of Space Law

  • National Space Society

  • International Space University


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NEXT STEPS brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

The intellectual and professional base has concluded that new space

assets will foster the expansion of space activities in the following

ways:

  • Creating various facilities in low Earth orbit

  • Transferring payloads and people from one Earth orbit to another

  • Developing the geostationary orbit with platforms such as solar power stations, depots for cryogenic propellants, and service stations for satellites or spacecraft

  • Establishing human outposts at both the Earth-Moon and the Sun-Earth Lagrange points

  • Developing nuclear propulsion systems for solar system exploration by human beings

  • Establishing human outposts on the Moon and in-orbit around Mars

  • Exploiting extraterrestrial resources such as water on The Moon or Mars for oxygen to breathe and hydrogen to burn as fuel, or platinum from an asteroid

  • To explore the outer solar system in some detail using colonies of robotic spacecraft.


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LUNAR EMBASSY brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • In 1980, Dennis Hope sent letters to the United Nations, the United States government and the government of the former Soviet Union, informing them that he was officially claiming ownership of all planetary and lunar surfaces (aside from the Earth) in our solar system.  He even gave them the opportunity to respond if they had objections, and as crazy as it sounds, he hasn't heard a word from any of them since.

  • So...for twenty years Dennis Hope has been selling plots on the Moon, Mars and other heavenly bodies - for a pretty reasonable price!  And he's been pursuing this as not just a novelty sale, but a serious real estate transaction (complete with covenants and bylaws that prevent the unsightly or trivial usage of the property).  His sales are accelerating, and within a couple of years he anticipates he'll have a constituency in the millions - enough to put serious pressure on the UN and the U.S. to recognize the government of Luna (never mind that not a single landlord has set foot on the property yet).

  • http://www.scifidimensions.com/Feb01/dennishope.htm


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ORBITAL DEVELOPMENT brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • Orbital Development (http://www.orbdev.com) welcomes NASA's NEAR spacecraft upon the spacecraft's successful landing on the Asteroid Eros. Eros is owned by Orbital Development, says the company's founder, Gregory Nemitz. OrbDev has owned the property since Nemitz established a claim on March 3, 2000, and filed a Class D property claim with the Archimedes Institute.

  • "It is the wild frontier up there." says Nemitz. "Since there are no laws governing private property claims in Outer Space. the first claimant gets ownership of it." This concept may sound foreign to Americans, but precedents are well entrenched throughout history. "The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 prohibits National Governments from making property claims in space, so NASA and the NEAR project cannot make a superseding claim for Eros, based on NEAR's successful landing." says Nemitz.


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International Law = International Politics brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • Much has been written on international law and international politics. Too little focuses on the process of change in international law triggered by new political mood eras.

  • By looking at changes in international law, we can see this relationship.


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International Law = International Politics brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • As Hager [1] (1970) explains "the international legal system has been marked by continuous development and re-definition to reach objectives which have been formulated for it". The process involves the intentional acts of individuals - or groups of individuals. Hager (1970: 8) also asserts that international law is more accurately characterized as de lege ferenda (that which is developing to attain the objectives contemplated for it), rather that de lege lata (that which is established). He explains this to mean that international law is shaped by all the elements that compose the international system and is "reflective of the structure of the world, transnational forces, the pattern of power and the political cultures of the main actors, and the relations among the units" (1970: 8).


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INTERNATIONAL LAW brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total numberGovernance of Space Activities

  • In 1958, shortly after the launching of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik-1, the United Nations General Assembly established an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (GA resolution 1348 (XIII)). The following year, a permanent Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was established by the General Assembly (resolution 1472 (XIV)).

  • In 1959, the Committee had 24 members. Since then it has grown to 65 members - one of the largest Committees in the United Nations. In addition to States a number of international organizations, including both intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, have observer status with COPUOS and its Subcommittees.


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PURPOSE OF THE COPUOS brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is “the only international forum for the development of international space law”.Since its inception, the Committee has concluded five international legal instruments and five sets of legal principles governing space-related activities.

The five treaties and agreements are:

  • The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Outer Space Treaty", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2222 (XXI)), opened for signature on 27 January 1967, entered into force on 10 October 1967, 98 ratifications and 27 signatures (as of 1 January 2003); 

  • The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Rescue Agreement", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2345 (XXII)), opened for signature on 22 April 1968, entered into force on 3 December 1968, 88 ratifications, 25 signatures, and 1 acceptance of rights and obligations (as of 1 January 2003); 

  • The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (the "Liability Convention", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2777 (XXVI)), opened for signature on 29 March 1972, entered into force on 1 September 1972, 82 ratifications, 25 signatures, and 2 acceptances of rights and obligations (as of 1 January 2003); 

  • The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Registration Convention", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 3235 (XXIX)), opened for signature on 14 January 1975, entered into force on 15 September 1976, 44 ratifications, 4 signatures, and 2 acceptances of rights and obligations (as of 1 January 2003); 

  • The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Moon Agreement", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 34/68), opened for signature on 18 December 1979, entered into force on 11 July 1984, 10 ratifications and 5 signatures (as of 1 January 2003).


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The five declarations and legal principles are: brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • The Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space (General Assembly resolution 1962 (XVIII) of 13 December 1963); 

  • The Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting (resolution 37/92 of 10 December 1982);

  • The Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space (resolution 41/65 of 3 December 1986); 

  • The Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (resolution 47/68 of 14 December 1992); 

  • The Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries (resolution 51/122 of 13 December 1996).


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Stated Purpose brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

The international legal principles in these five treaties provide for freedom of use and exploration, non-appropriation of outer space by any one country, arms control, liability for damage caused by space objects, the safety and rescue of spacecraft and astronauts, the prevention of harmful interference with space activities and the environment, the notification and registration of space activities, scientific investigation and the exploitation of natural resources in outer space and the settlement of disputes. Each of the treaties lays great stress on the notion that the domain of outer space, the activities carried out therein and whatever benefits might accrue therefrom should be devoted to enhancing the well-being of all countries and humankind, and each includes elements elaborating the common idea of promoting international cooperation in outer space activities.

The five sets of legal principles adopted by the United Nations General Assembly provide for the application of international law and promotion of international cooperation and understanding in space activities, the dissemination and exchange of information through transnational direct television broadcasting via satellites and remote satellite observations of Earth and general standards regulating the safe use of nuclear power sources necessary for the exploration and use of outer space.


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Outer Space Development brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number

  • Outer space development and colonization is not far off. Domestic and international laws have been created to shape outer space development. Outer space development hasn’t just happened; it was the result of concerted actions. Laws have been passed to encourage these activities.

  • Established space industries include: telecommunications, direct television broadcasting, remote sensing, space transportation and launch services. There are also new impending industries such as space stations, space tourism, space mining and space settlement. Various activities are underway to develop the final frontier for human visitation and extended habitation. However, this is news to most people in the U.S. as well as around the globe.


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