Outer Space Development Trends . . . . an outsiders’ perspective Copyright 2004 E.E. Weeks. What Outer Space Development Means. Outer space development means different things to different people, and this changes over time. It can mean:
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an outsiders’ perspective
Copyright 2004 E.E. Weeks
Outer space development means different things to
different people, and this changes over time. It can
Mankind has gone to the Moon more times than people realize.
THE SHENZHOU 5
China's first manned spacecraft,
is expected to blast into orbit
sometime this fall. The nine-
meter-long craft, which holds two
pairs of solar panels and four
main engines, is designed to carry up
to three astronauts. If the mission is
successful, China was the third nation (after
Russia and the U.S.) to send a manned vehicle
Scientific American, 10/13/03
In addition, China is “planning to establish a
base on the Moon [by 2010] to exploit its mineral
resources” for the stated purpose being “Our
long-term goal is to set up a base on the Moon
and mine its riches for the benefit of humanity.”
BBC News, May 20, 2002
The European Space Agency's SMART-1 spacecraft took off this Fall for a trip to the moon -- with an arrival date of December 2004.
Plans have been put into place for NASA to use nuclear propulsion, since it is believed that nuclear propulsion Nuclear propulsion is capable (in theory) of achieving much faster speeds than conventional rockets, and that they will use far less fuel. This could cut travel time to Mars.  "Plans Put into Place for NASA to go Nuclear", BBC News World Edition, Online Science Editor (January 22, 2003) at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2684329.stm.A New Space Race: Project Prometheus
In the early stages of space activities only a few states engaged in the use of outer space. Today, however, commercial space activities have grown dramatically in recent years. States, state institutions, international governmental organizations and private entities are actively engaged in the commercial use of outer space. Several space industries have gone through the process of commercialization:
Remote Sensing Satellites
Direct Broadcasting Satellites
AND MANY, MANY MORE
Sputnik was the very
first satellite; it was
launched by Russia in
October of 1957.
This was the beginning of
the space race for national
prestige and scientific achievement.
It was also the beginning of a new
age of communications.
Today There is a
multitude of satellites
telecommunications, remote sensing, weather reporting & television broadcasting.
For more information see http://dev.space.com/spacenews/top50_2004.html.
Over the last four decades, successive US Congresses and Presidential Administrations have sought ways to improve the prospects for successful commercialization in two major ways: transfer of technology developed in government laboratories to private industry; and creation of policies that promoted private financing of commercial opportunities in space.
Those efforts have been reflected in a series of legislative initiatives - most notably in satellite communications, remote sensing, and launch services.
Within the past ten years there has been an astonishing increase in the quantity and
quality of international cooperative activities. Many involve former political adversaries.
Aldrin (1998: 115) provides the following examples:
The Technology exists for
Spaceflight Revolution (2003),
a new book from David Ashford,
founder and director of Bristol
Spaceplanes Limited, discusses
this. Ashford was the recipient of
the ORBIT award in the "Visionaries"
category at the recent Space Tourism
"The X PRIZE Competition was created to attract the best and brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number of teams now registered to win the X PRIZE exceeds 20 from six nations: Argentina, Canada, Romania, Russia, UK, and the United States."
"I think the X PRIZE should be viewed as the beginning of one giant leap..."
Tom HanksActor,Director and Producer"The X PRIZE is a masterstroke, a brilliant idea. What the X PRIZE could very well..."THE X PRIZE COMPETION10 Million Dollars
Since the mid 1990s newer space industries have been discussed within the space development discourse (articles, books, movies, conversations etc.), and as the subject of numerous conferences, symposia and colloquia. These discussions and plans are articulated around the idea of commercializing the following industries:
Q: What is Space Tourism?
A: The notion that space is a place for laypeople (non astronauts) to visit and enjoy some day.
Space tourism is not a new concept, but has been around since the 1950s, or before. It was ignored until recently.
Everything you ever wanted to know can be found at
July 22, 2002
XCOR Aerospace and
Space Adventures, Ltd., announced a marketing agreement that enables Space Adventures to offer the first 600 flights to 62 miles (100 km) altitude aboard XCOR's Xerus sub-orbital vehicle, designed specifically for space tourist flights. The tickets cost $98,000 per. Space Adventures has already sold over $2 million dollars.
The International Space Station
Source NASA 1999
Shimizu Corporation's popular Space Hotel design
In 2025 Nevada will have established itself as the Nation’s Western Gateway to Space through the development of one of 5 new national spaceports serving the needs of the international aerospace community. The Nevada spaceport will be the gateway for aerospace customers in the Great Basin including, including Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and will also provide a high-altitude launch site for California. The Nevada spaceport will provide service facilities for both sub-orbital aerospace planes and re-useable launch vehicles. It will provide cargo, test and integration facilities for payloads for commercial, scientific and national defense missions as well as re-supply missions to the international space station, to lunar bases, and to Mars.
Corporations, individuals, nations and institutions are planning to tap into the wealth of space by extracting natural resources from the Moon, asteroids and Mars.
For example, a chunk of iron-nickel meteorite could have a value of $80 trillion dollars. Gold concentration “is ten times richer than anything being mined on Earth, and the entire platinum group of minerals in there-metals-is 100 times more concentrated than anything being mined on Earth. We are talking about parts per million, parts per billion. . .”
Jim Benson quoted in Making Space Happen: Private Space Ventures and the Visionaries Behind Them (2002).
The intellectual and professional base has concluded that new space
assets will foster the expansion of space activities in the following
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is “the only international forum for the development of international space law”.Since its inception, the Committee has concluded five international legal instruments and five sets of legal principles governing space-related activities.
The five treaties and agreements are:
The five declarations and legal principles are: brightest of today's aerospace engineers to develop private spaceships for space tourism," The total number
The international legal principles in these five treaties provide for freedom of use and exploration, non-appropriation of outer space by any one country, arms control, liability for damage caused by space objects, the safety and rescue of spacecraft and astronauts, the prevention of harmful interference with space activities and the environment, the notification and registration of space activities, scientific investigation and the exploitation of natural resources in outer space and the settlement of disputes. Each of the treaties lays great stress on the notion that the domain of outer space, the activities carried out therein and whatever benefits might accrue therefrom should be devoted to enhancing the well-being of all countries and humankind, and each includes elements elaborating the common idea of promoting international cooperation in outer space activities.
The five sets of legal principles adopted by the United Nations General Assembly provide for the application of international law and promotion of international cooperation and understanding in space activities, the dissemination and exchange of information through transnational direct television broadcasting via satellites and remote satellite observations of Earth and general standards regulating the safe use of nuclear power sources necessary for the exploration and use of outer space.