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Ocean Commission Update Coastal and Ocean Governance Review for Washington State Presentation to Washington State Senate Committee on Natural Resources, Ocean and Recreation January 31, 2005 Marc J. Hershman Professor, School of Marine Affairs Adjunct Professor, School of Law

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coastal and ocean governance review for washington state

Coastal and Ocean Governance Review for Washington State

Presentation to Washington State Senate

Committee on Natural Resources, Ocean and Recreation

January 31, 2005

Marc J. Hershman

Professor, School of Marine Affairs

Adjunct Professor, School of Law

University of Washington

slide3

An Ocean Blueprint

for the 21st Century

expansion of ocean jurisdiction
Expansion of ocean jurisdiction

The 1958 zonal approach

12 NM

Baseline

?? NM

C.Z.

T.S.

High Seas

Low Water

Continental

Shelf

Thanks to Craig Allen

expansion of ocean jurisdiction5
Expansion of ocean jurisdiction

The modern regime

200 NM

EEZ

(188 NM wide)

Internal

waters

12 NM

C.Z.

12 NM

*Baseline*

High Seas

Uplands

T.S.

High Water

Tidelands

Low Water

Submerged

Lands

Continental

Shelf

Deep Seabed

Thanks to Craig Allen

the renewal of national ocean policy
The renewal of national ocean policy

The U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy

  • Bi-partisan panel
  • Broad range of expertise
  • Geographic balance
presidential response
Presidential response

The President has 90 days to submit to Congress a statement of proposals to implement or respond to the Commission’s recommendations. The Bush Administration “Ocean Action Plan” was announced December 17, 2004.

final report contents
Final Report Contents

The new ocean governance framework

Education

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

International role

Advancing our understanding

Water Quality and Pollution

Ocean Value & Vitality

final report contents9
Final Report Contents

The new ocean policy framework

Education

  • K-12
  • Higher Ed & the workforce
  • Informal ed

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

International role

Advancing our understanding

Water Quality and Pollution

Ocean Value & Vitality

education and the workforce
Education and the workforce
  • Education coordination and development are key functions within the National Ocean Council
  • Align education with workforce needs
  • Develop diverse ocean-related education at all post-secondary levels
  • Promote federal stipends for ocean-related education at the post-secondary level
  • Encourage cross-disciplinary courses of ocean study
final report contents11
Final Report Contents

The new ocean policy framework

Education

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

  • Watersheds
  • Natural hazards
  • Restoration
  • Shorelines
  • Commerce

International role

Advancing our understanding

Water Quality and Pollution

Ocean Value & Vitality

coastal management
Coastal management

Protection from natural hazards

  • Address growing costs of coastal hazards and data needs
  • Eliminate federal incentives that encourage inappropriate development
  • Better incorporate hazard risk into federal project analysis
  • Improve awareness of hazard risks
  • Improve the National Flood Insurance Program
  • Improve hazard mitigation planning

www.ecy.wa.gov

Washaway Beach, WA

www.ecy.wa.gov

Ocean Shores, WA

final report contents13
Final Report Contents

The new ocean policy framework

Education

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

International role

Water Quality and Pollution

Advancing our understanding

  • Coastal pollution
  • Monitoring
  • Vessel

pollution

  • Invasive species
  • Marine

debris

Ocean Value & Vitality

water quality and pollution
Water Quality and Pollution

Addressing coastal water pollution

  • Coastal waters under siege
  • Managing point sources of pollution
  • Managing nonpoint sources of pollution
  • Managing atmospheric sources of pollution

EPA office of water

final report contents15
Final Report Contents

The new ocean policy framework

Education

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

International role

Water Quality and Pollution

Advancing our understanding

Ocean Value & Vitality

ocean value and vitality
Ocean Value and Vitality

Achieving Sustainable Fisheries

  • Upgrade scientific input and separate scientific and management decisions
  • Strengthen research that supports management of commercial and recreational fishing
  • Clarify fishery management jurisdictions and upgrade interstate fishery organizations
  • Broaden Fishery Council membership
ocean value and vitality17
Ocean Value and Vitality

Protecting Marine Mammals

  • Threats to marine mammals
  • Improving marine mammal protection
  • Meeting research and education needs
  • Applying ecosystem-based management

www.noaanews.noaa.gov

www.yoto98.noaa.gov

www.ucsc.edu

ocean value and vitality18
Ocean Value and Vitality

Preserving Coral Reefs

  • Coral ecosystems
  • The existing management framework
  • International coral reef protection
  • Improving understanding of corals

FKNMS

ocean value and vitality20
Ocean Value and Vitality

Marine aquaculture

  • Challenges to expansion
  • Developing and implementing national aquaculture policy
  • Increasing the knowledge base
  • International concerns and cooperation

www.photolib.noaa.gov

Offshore Pacific threadfin (Moi) pen, HI

ocean value and vitality21
Ocean Value and Vitality

Connecting oceans and human health

  • Links between oceans and human health
  • Beneficial uses of marine-derived bio-products
  • Negative health impacts of marine organisms
  • Increasing federal coordination of oceans and human health research

www.wdfw.wa.gov

ocean value and vitality22
Ocean Value and Vitality

Development of offshore energy and other mineral resources

  • Non-living resources in federal waters
  • Oil and gas
  • Methane hydrates
  • Renewable energy
  • Other marine minerals

Wave Dragon – a large offshore wave energy converter

www.wavedragon.net

final report contents23
Final Report Contents

The new ocean policy framework

Education

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

International role

Advancing our understanding

Water Quality and Pollution

  • Research
  • Observing systems
  • Technology
  • Data

Ocean Value & Vitality

research education
Research/ Education

Monterey Bay Aquarium/ MBARI

R/V Western Flyer

ROV Tiburon

Hydrothermal vent

final report contents26
Final Report Contents

The new ocean policy framework

Education

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

International role

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

  • International ocean policy and science

Advancing our understanding

Water Quality and Pollution

Ocean Value & Vitality

final report contents27
Final Report Contents

The new ocean governance framework

Education

Coordinated and

Comprehensive

National Ocean

Policy

  • National Council
  • Regional Approach
  • Offshore management
  • Consolidation

America’s Coasts: Living on the Edge

International role

Advancing our understanding

Water Quality and Pollution

Ocean Value & Vitality

governance framework
Governance framework

The national level initiative

Executive Office

of the President

Scientific and

Technical

Advisors

Ocean

Policy

Advisors

(non-federal)

National Ocean Council

Chair: Assistant to the

President

for Ocean Affairs

Committee on Ocean Resource

Management

Committee on Ocean Science,

Applications and Technology

national ocean council
National Ocean Council

Functions

  • Develop goals for national ocean governance
  • Recommend and oversee national ocean policy
  • Coordinate/ integrate activities of federal ocean agencies
  • Stimulate regional approaches to ocean management
  • Identify redundancies
  • Guide use of science for policy
  • Support partnerships: agency/NGO, private/public
  • Expand agency outreach
  • Assess state of nation’s oceans and coasts
the regional approach
The regional approach

“Bottom-up” policy development

  • Take the initiative on ocean management
  • Set agenda and determine organizational structure
  • Receive federal support
  • Define regions (initially based on fisheries management regions)
the regional approach31
The regional approach

Potential functions

  • Characterize the region
  • Develop goals and objectives
  • Facilitate regional research
  • Coordinate collaborative ocean

management

  • Build awareness
  • Develop regional ecosystem

assessments

  • Monitor and evaluate regional

performance

  • Identify opportunities for offshore uses (e.g. renewable energy, MPA’s)

USGS

improving governance of the offshore
Improving governance of the offshore

A coordinated management regime

  • Meet Growing Need
  • Clarify Offshore Responsibilities
  • Ensure fair return from use of resources
  • Use Marine Protected Areas as Appropriate
renewable ocean energy
Renewable ocean energy

Offshore wind farms: Horns Rev, Denmark

www.hornsrev.dk

www.hornsrev.dk

bush administration ocean action plan dec 17 2004
Bush Administration Ocean Action Plan Dec. 17, 2004
  • Enhancing Leadership and Coordination
  • Advancing ocean research and observations
  • Improving natural resource use and conservation
  • Assisting coast and watershed management
  • Supporting marine transportation
  • Advancing international ocean science and policy
bush administration ocean action plan
Bush Administration Ocean Action Plan

Supporting Regional Collaborations

  • Great Lakes Interagency Collaboration
  • Regional Partnership in the Gulf of Mexico
  • Regional Aquatic Resource Partnership for the Southeast of US
bush administration ocean action plan38
Bush Administration Ocean Action Plan

Resource Management Actions

  • Promote market based systems in fisheries
  • Foster balanced representation on fish councils
  • Establish guidelines for use of science in fisheries
  • Implement coral reef local action strategies
  • Propose offshore aquaculture legislation
  • Better integrate the existing network of marine managed areas
  • Support offshore energy development
bush administration ocean action plan39
Bush Administration Ocean Action Plan

Coast and Watershed Management

  • Advance watershed conservation through the Farm Bill
  • Conserve and restore coastal habitat
  • Prevent the spread of invasive species
  • Reduce coastal water pollution
  • Reduce airborne pollution of coastal waters
bush administration ocean action plan40
Bush Administration Ocean Action Plan

Ocean Research and Observations

  • Develop ocean research priorities plan
  • Build global earth observation network
  • Deploy new research and survey platforms
  • Develop national water quality monitoring network
  • Coordinate ocean and coastal mapping
  • Implement oceans, human health, hypoxia act
  • Promote lifelong ocean education
bush administration ocean action plan41
Bush Administration Ocean Action Plan

International Ocean Policy and Science

  • Accede to UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
  • Strengthen implementation of London Convention
  • Reduce land-based sources of marine pollution
  • Approve ratification of MARPOL amendments on pollution from marine engines
  • Use large marine ecosystems concept in international context
  • Link global earth observation system with the global marine assessment
bush administration ocean action plan42
Bush Administration Ocean Action Plan

Supporting Marine Transportation

  • Make ICMTS Cabinet Level
  • Implement Freight Action Agenda
  • Assess Short Sea Shipping
  • Update water level observation network near seaports
  • Launch Federal Clean Marina Challenge
  • Decrease Vessel Air Emissions
congressional initiatives 2003 04
Congressional Initiatives - 2003-04
  • NOAA Organic Legislation
  • Ocean and Coastal Policy
  • Ocean Exploration
  • Ocean Mapping
  • Oceans and Human Health
  • Marine Debris Reduction
  • Ocean and Coastal Observations
  • Coast and Estuarine Land Protection
  • Ocean Research Coordination
coastal state and bc initiatives
Coastal State and BC Initiatives
  • California Ocean Action Plan and Ocean Protection Council
  • Oregon Ocean Policy Advisory Council
  • Canada Ocean Strategy; Cdn-BC Implementation MOU
  • Hawaii Ocean and Coastal Council
  • Washington: Proposed Ocean Policy Review Commission
washington state situation
Washington State Situation

Emerging marine technologies and development/environmental trends

  • Renewable ocean energy projects
  • Fisheries enhancement and mariculture
  • Ocean science and monitoring
  • Marine Biotech and human health protection
  • Climate change and variability effects
  • Marine transit and short sea shipping
washington state situation46
Washington State Situation

Links to Oregon and British Columbia

  • Oregon: coordination on erosion, dredging, fisheries, research and ocean observing/monitoring systems
  • British Columbia: coordination on water quality, habitat improvement, research, marine reserves, shipping safety
s 5278 ocean policy review commission
S. 5278 - Ocean Policy Review Commission
  • Modeled after US Commission
  • Gets the dialogue started
  • Take a fresh and independent look
  • Build capacity to better assert state interests
  • Provide sufficient funds for an independent review
thank you

Thank you

The Project on Ocean Governance

School of Marine Affairs

University of Washington