Methods of child language study
1 / 27

Methods of Child Language Study - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Methods of Child Language Study. C. Ray Graham. Ancient Roots. Research Question : What is the oldest race of human beings? Researcher : Psammetichus, King of Egypt Underlying Theory : Strong form of the innatist hypothesis Design : Longitudinal Case Study

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Methods of Child Language Study' - Jims

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Ancient roots l.jpg
Ancient Roots

Research Question: What is the oldest race of human beings?

Researcher: Psammetichus, King of Egypt

Underlying Theory: Strong form of the innatist hypothesis

Design: Longitudinal Case Study

Method: Shepherd ordered to raise two children, caring for their needs but not speaking to them.

Slide3 l.jpg

Hypothesis: The first words to be spoken would indicate that Egyptian was the oldest culture on earth.

Results: After two years the shepherd went to their quarters one day and the children came running with outstretched arms and said, “Becos,” which was not a word in Egyptian. Upon enquiry it was determined that becos meant “bread” in the Phrygian language.

Conclusions: Egyptian was the second oldest race of humans after the Phrygians.

Source: Book 2 of History by Herodotus abt 440 BC

Late 19 th and early 20 th centruies l.jpg
Late 19th and Early 20th Centruies

  • Diary studies

    • Bloch (1913-24) French

    • Bokonyi (1918) Hungarian

    • Boksis (1939) Russian

  • Bilingualism

  • Vocabulary studies

    • Binet (1902) French

    • Bonser

    • Bush (1914)

    • Campbell (1901)

  • Phonology

  • Abnormal Langauge

Mid 1900s l.jpg
Mid 1900s

  • Normal Language Development

  • Abnormal Language Development

    • Stuttering (Boland 1951, Blumel 1960,Bloodstein 1960-65)

    • Delayed language Blackman (1957)

    • Deaf (Carr 1953)

A new era in child language studies 1960 present l.jpg
A new era in child language studies1960-Present

  • Morphology

    • Berko (1958)

  • Syntax

    • Brown (1964)

    • Braine (1963-66)Word order (Pivot Grammar)

    • Bellugi (1967) Negation

  • Phonology

    • Menn

    • Stoel-Gammon

  • Sociolinguistics

    • Bernstein (1962-65) Social Class & Language Development

    • Cazden (1962-65)

High amplitude sucking paradigm l.jpg

Infant placed in a reclining seat and given a binky with a hole in it to suck on

The binky has a pressure transducer in it which measures sucking rate and allows infant to control rate of sound input

Baseline sucking rate is established with a speech syllable

Infant is presented with new syllable

Increase in rate is interpreted as detection of new sound

Works best with 1-4-month-olds

High Amplitude Sucking Paradigm

Conditioned head turn l.jpg
Conditioned Head Turn hole in it to suck on

  • Child hears one sound several times

  • He/she then hears a new sound followed by a switch back to the former sound

  • If the child turns his/her head when the new sound is presented he/she is rewarded with a picture of lit-up toy

  • If the child learns to turn his/her head at the presentation of the stimulus, but not otherwise, it is interpreted as discrimination

  • Works best with 6-to-10-month-olds

Findings l.jpg
Findings hole in it to suck on

  • 1 month--/ba/ vs /pa/

    /a/ vs /i/

    /a/ vs /u/

  • 2 months--/ba/ vs /ga/

    /ba/ vs /da/

    /ba/ vs /wa/

    /ra/ vs /la/

    /wa/ vs /ja/

    rising vs falling pitch

Phonemic perception l.jpg
Phonemic Perception hole in it to suck on

  • Child sits in front of the experimenter

  • Experimenter presents a wooden “doll” and says, “This is /tas/.” “Put /tas/ on the wagon.” etc.

  • Experimenter presents a second “doll” of different shape, color, etc. and says, “This is /das/.” “Put /das/ in the box.” etc.

  • Experimenter sets the dolls side by side in random order and says, “This is /tas/ and this is /das/. Put (randomly) /das/ in the box.”

  • Correct choice of dolls is interpreted as perception of phonemic differences.

Findings12 l.jpg
Findings hole in it to suck on

There is an order to the minimal pairs contrasts with which children can play the game:

Principles of lexical development l.jpg
Principles of Lexical Development hole in it to suck on

  • Words refer to objects

  • Words refer to whole objects

  • New words can be extended to other members of the category

  • Each object can have only one name

  • New words refer to things that do not already have a name

  • No two words have exactly the same meaning

Preferential looking paradigm l.jpg
Preferential Looking Paradigm hole in it to suck on

  • Child sits on mother’s lap equadistant from two video monitors.

  • Mother closes eyes

  • Child watches two simultaneously presented colored videos

  • An audio message from a hidden speaker between video monitors directs child to attend to one of the monitors

  • Researcher observes eye movements of child and records time spent focused on each monitor

Results conclusions l.jpg
Results & Conclusions hole in it to suck on

  • By 17 months children can use word order to distinguish between sentences such as:

    • Big Bird was tickling Cookie Monster

    • Cookie Monster was tickling Big Bird

  • Comprehension of syntax is well in advance of production since most children are not producing two word utterances by this age.

The wug test l.jpg
The Wug Test hole in it to suck on

Results conclusions18 l.jpg
Results & Conclusions hole in it to suck on

  • Between three and four years of age children are able to apply learned grammatical morphemes to words that they have never heard before.

  • Learners develop a productive use of morphological generalizations

Puppets and meta language l.jpg
Puppets and Meta-language hole in it to suck on

  • Two experimenters with hand puppets and a child with a hand puppet

  • The experimenters demonstrate the correction of grammatical error

    • E1 says, “Horse the ride”

    • E2 says, “No that is not right you say, ride the horse.

    • E1 then gives examples to the child and has the child say whether the sentence is good and if not how to correct it

Result l.jpg
Result hole in it to suck on

  • Up until about 3 years of age children are unable to tell when the grammar is wrong except when it makes the utterance anomalous.

  • A year later children can correct ill formed utterances.

Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions hole in it to suck on

  • Children gradually develop the ability to attend to the form of language as an object of attention in and of itself

Realia and word order l.jpg
Realia and Word Order hole in it to suck on

  • The experimenter sits with the child and has toy objects to manipulate.

  • The experimenter says to the child, “Here is a car and here is a truck. I am going to say something and I want you to act it out.”

    • “The car was hit by the truck.”

  • The experimenter blindfolds a doll and asks, “Is the doll easy to see, or hard to see?”

Results conclusions24 l.jpg
Results & Conclusions hole in it to suck on

  • Chidren as old as 4 ½ to 5 will interpret the first noun phrase in a sentence as the agent and the second one as the object in passives and will ignore the passive markers of “was…by”

  • Correct interpretation of unusual word order develops slowly in often not complete until middle childhood

Anaphora gb theory l.jpg
Anaphora & GB Theory hole in it to suck on

Principles of gb l.jpg
Principles of GB hole in it to suck on

  • A reflexive is always bound to a referent that is within the same clause

    • John said that Robert hurt himself

  • An anaphoric pronoun cannot be bound to a referent within the same clause

    • John said that robert hurt him

  • Backward co-reference is only allowed if the pronoun is in a clause subordinate to the main clause.

    • When he came home John made dinner.

    • He made dinner when John came home

Findings27 l.jpg
Findings hole in it to suck on

  • By 6 years of age children know A, but are still making errors on pronouns

  • Children have difficulties with B even after age 6

  • Children do not seem to control C until middle school years